As varnish is a liquid made to be applied to a surface in a thin film, which, on exposure to the air, hardens into a protective coating that is usually glossy and almost transparent. There are two principal classes - spirit and oleo-resinous varnishes.

Spirit varnishes, of which shellac* is the most important, are made by dissolving a resin (or sometimes some other substance) in a volatile solvent, such as alcohol. They dry by evaporation, the solvent going off and leaving the resin spread out in a thin film, the liquid or vehicle having really served as a mechanical means of spreading the resin &8226; the surface. Shellac is a resin which comes on the market in large, thin flakes. It may be dissolved in denatured (or any other] alcohol in the following manner:

Put the alcohol in an earthenware jar, and weigh out five pounds of gum shellac for each gallon of alcohol. Just before leaving at night, carefully and gently drop the shellac, little by little, into the jar of alcohol, then put on the cover and leave it until morning. Do not on any account stir it. In the morning the flakes of shellac will be soaked and swollen; but if' you had stirred them in, the night before, they would have stuck together in lumps. Now, during the day, stir the mass with a wooden stick once every hour or so; do not put any metal in it, especially iron; one iron nail will spoil the color of a whole barrel of shellac. By the next morning- perhaps before the shellac will be ready for use. It does not make a clear solution, because the gum shellac contains some wax, which does not dissolve, and so the varnish is milky or cloudy; it is, however, ready for use. As the alcohol is volatile, the jar should be kept covered; and after it is made, the varnish should be put in glass bottles or clean tin cans

There are many grades of shellac gum, the best being known by the letter D C; but there are others nearby as good. The common shellac is brownish yellow, and is called orange shellac; this is the natural shellac color. White shellac is made from this by bleaching with chlorine; but it is not of so good quality as the unbleached; it has, of course, the advantage of being much paler in color. White shellac gum will, on long standing, sometimes become insoluble. Shellac varnish may be thinned with alcohol, and often this is necessary. Shellac is too often adulterated with common rosin, which greatly lessens its value. This is easily detected by a chemical test.

* NOTE:: - By some painters, the term "varnish" is never used to include shellac.

There is, however, no valid objective reason for this limited the use of the terms.

Damar is a white resin which is soluble in spirits of turpentine -five or six pounds of resin to a gallon of turpentine. It is the most nearly colorless varnish we have, but never becomes very hard. It is used to a considerable extent as a vehicle for white lead and zinc, to make a very white enamel paint. It is not durable if exposed to the weather.

More important than spirit varnishes are the oleo-resinous varnishes, which consist of certain resins dissolved in linseed oil, the mixture being thinned with turpentine or benzine. In making these, the resin is put in a copper kettle and heated until it is thoroughly melted; then some hot oil is added to it, and the mixture cooked until the whole is thoroughly combined. The kettle is then taken from the fire, and when partly cool, the turpentine is stirred in. The resin makes the film hard and lustrous, and the oil makes it tough. Thus the larger the proportion of resin, the harder and more brilliant will be the film; the larger the proportion of oil, the tougher, more elastic, and more durable it will be, and the slower it will dry. Most of the color of varnish comes from the resin; the paler this is, the paler will be the varnish. The pale gums are higher in price than the dark ones, but are no better in any respect except color. Dark varnishes may be just as good (except in color) as pale ones - in fact may be better, for the dark resins are often harder and better than the pale ones of the same sort. The hard and quick-drying varnishes are suitable for furniture; the medium, for interior house-varnishes; the slow and elastic, for exposure to the weather.