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Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building Vol7-10



Volumes 7, 8, 9 and 10 of a general reference work on architecture, carpentry, building, superintendence, contracts, specifications, building law, stair-building, estimating, masonry, reinforced concrete, structural engineering, architectural drawing, sheet metal work, heating, ventilating, etc.

TitleCyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building Vol7-10
AuthorJames C. et al
PublisherAmerican Technical Society
Year1912
Copyright1912, American Technical Society
AmazonCyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building

Prepared by a Staff of Architects, Builders, Engineers, And Experts Of The Highest Professional Standing

Illustrated with over Three Thousand Engravings

Ten Volumes

-Foreword Vol7
EDENWOOD, THE RESIDENCE OF FRANCIS H. ADRIANCE, ESQ., NEW CANAAN, CONN. Ernest M. A. Machado, Architect, Boston, Mass. Note the combination of Ionic and Doric Orders on the entrance feature, the...
-1. The Value Of Freehand Drawing To An Architect
Outside of its general educational value freehand drawing is as abso-lutely essential to the trained architect as it is to the professional painter. It is obviously necessary for the representation of...
-2. Definition Of Drawing
A drawing is a statement of certain facts or truths by means of lines and tones. It is nothing more or less than an explanation. The best drawings are those in which the statement is most direct and s...
-4. Restraint In Drawing
The practical application of the preceding broad definition is neither difficult nor abstruse. The beginner in drawing usually finds his work swamped in a mass of detail, because his desire is to be a...
-5. Learning To See
It is wry important that the student of drawing shall understand in the beginning that a very large part of his education consists in learning to see correctly. The power to see correctly and the manu...
-10. Pencils
Drawings may be made in black and white or in color. A black and white drawing is one in which there is no color and is made by using pencil, charcoal, crayon or paint which produces different tone...
-14. Straight Lines
In drawing the straight line exercises points should first be placed lightly and the line drawn to connect themas in Fig. 1. Draw a series of ten or fif-teen lines in each position, placing the points...
-15. Circles And Ellipses
In practicing drawing circles start from a point at the left and move around toward the right as in Fig. 2. Draw a series of ten cir-cles half an inch in diameter, forming each with a single pencil st...
-16. Freehand Perspective
One of the chief difficulties in learning to draw is, as before stated, in learning to see correctly, because the appearance of objects so often contradicts what we know to be true of them. More than ...
-17. Tracing On The Slate
In beginning to study model drawing the model may be traced upon the slate held between the model and the eye and at right angles to the direction in which the object is seen. (See section 13.) In ord...
-18. Testing With The Slate
The great value of the slate for the beginner in freehand drawing is the ease with which the accuracy of a drawing may be tested. To obtain satisfactory results the models should be placed about a foo...
-Freehand Perspective
19. The Horizon Line or Eye Level This, as the name implies, is an imaginary horizontal line on a level with the eye, It is of great importance in representation, as all objects appear to change their...
-Freehand Perspective. Part 2
It is easy to see from the drawing of the foreshortened square in Fig. 4, that of the two equal and parallel lines a b and c d the nearer appears the longer, although neither of the lines are foreshor...
-Freehand Perspective. Part 3
Fig. 10. The Prism. Rule 12. When two or more faces of a cube are seen, none of them can appear their real shapes. Place the cubical form on the desk, with the tablets vertical, and one ...
-Freehand Perspective. Part 4
Fig. 19. Hexagon. The perspective drawing of this figure will be corrected by giving the proper vanishing to the different sets of parallel lines, and by making the divisions on the diagonal A D p...
-21. General Directions For Drawing Objects
First observe carefully the whole mass of the object, its general proportions and the direction of lines as well as the width of the angles.- Then sketch the outlines rapidly with very light lines, an...
-24. Testing Drawings By Measurement
In drawings which are not made on the slate the following method of testing proportions is usual. With the arm stretched forward to its greatest length, hold the pencil upright so that its unsharpened...
-25. Misuse Of Tests
The use of tests may easily be perverted and become mischievous. Since the object of all drawing is to train the hand and eye, it follows naturally that the more the student relies upon tests the less...
-20. Light And Shade
Objects in nature, as before explained, detach themselves from each other by their differences in color and in light and shade. In drawing without color, artists have always allowed themselves a ver...
-27. Form Drawing
In form drawing the chief aim, as the name implies, is to express form and not color and texture. In order to do this, shadows and cast shadows are indicated only as far as they help to express the sh...
-28. Value Drawing
The word value as it is used in drawing is a translation from the French word valeur, and as used by artists it refers to the relations of light and dark. Value drawing represents objects exactly as ...
-29. Values
Drawing; has been called the science of art, but artists have rarely approved the introduction of scientific methods in the study of drawing, fearing lest the use of formulas should lead to dull mecha...
-30. The Value Scale
All possible values which can be represented in drawing, lie between the pure whites of paper or pigments and the pure black of pencil, ink, or other pigments. In order to think or speak precisely of ...
-33. General Directions For Drawing The Examination Plates
The examination plates are planned to give as great a variety to the style of drawing as possible. The architect is called upon to use freehand drawing in two general ways; to make working drawings of...
-34. Varieties Of Shading
In drawing in pen and ink, all effects of shadow are made by lines, and different values are obtained by varying the width of lines, or of the spaces between the lines, or by both. In any case the int...
-35. Directions Of Shade Lines
It is always a very important matter to decide what direction shade lines shall take. While it is impossible to give rules for it, a good general principle is to make the direction of the lines follo...
-35. Directions Of Shade Lines. Part 2
Figs. 5 and 7 are varieties of the Greek anthemion or honeysuckle pattern, one of the most subtle and perfect of all ornamental forms. Observe in Fig. 5 the quality of the curves-the contrast of full ...
-35. Directions Of Shade Lines. Part 3
Fig. 2 is from a photograph of a wrought iron grille at Lucca in the style of the Italian Renaissance. The drawing to be made from this, the student must consider to be a sketch, the sort of note or m...
-35. Directions Of Shade Lines. Part 4
Plate IX This plate is an example of the Byzantine acanthus on a fragment in the Capitoline Museum. In drawing this, place the central axis or main rib of the leaf first, then establish the position ...
-Definitions And General Theory
1. When any object in space is being viewed, rays of light are reflected from all points of its visible surface, and enter the eye of the observer. These rays of light are called visual rays. They str...
-Definitions And General Theory. Part 2
1 2. If any object, as, for illustration, a cube, is studied, it will be seen that the lines which form its edges may be separated into groups according to their different directions ; all lines havin...
-Definitions And General Theory. Part 3
(c) Any line lying in a plane will have its vanishing point somewhere in the vanishing trace of the plane in which if lies. (d) The vanishing trace of any plane mast pass through the vanishing points...
-The Planes Of Projection
26. Two planes of projection at right angles to one another, one vertical and the other horizontal, are used in making a perspective. In Fig. 7 these two planes are shown in oblique projection. The ve...
-The Planes Of Projection. Part 2
A line drawn from the horizontal projection of a to the hori-zontal projection of the station point will represent the horizontal projection of the visual ray, which passes through the point a. In Fig...
-The Planes Of Projection. Part 3
HPP represents the horizontal projection of the picture plane, and VII represents the vertical projection of the plane of the horizon. As horizontal projections are never compared with vertical proje...
-Elementary Problems in Perspective Drawing
47. PROBLEM I. Fig. 11. To find the perspective of a point. The point to be situated 1/4 behind the picture plane, and 1/8 above the plane of the horizon. The observer's eye to be 1/2 in front of t...
-Method Of The Revolved Plan
53. PROBLEM IV. Fig. 19. To find the perspective of a rectangular block resting upon a horizontal plane \ below the level of the eye, and turned so that the long side of the block makes an angle of 3...
-Lines Of Measures
55. Any line which lies in the picture plane will be its own perspective, and show the true length of the line (24 h). Such a line is called a Line of Measures. In the last problem, the line ae, bein...
-Lines Of Measures. Part 2
Its perspective projection will evidently be smaller than if the vertical edge ae were in the picture plane, as was the case in Figs. 19 and 20, and the perspective of ae will evidently be shorter tha...
-Lines Of Measures. Part 3
62. Having found the perspective of the main part of the house, the porch (without its roof) may be considered as a second rectangular block, no vertical edge of which lies in the picture plane. It ma...
-Vanishing Points Of Oblique Lines
66. The perspective of the house in the last problem was completely drawn, using only the vanishing points for the two principal systems of horizontal lines. By this method it is possible to find the ...
-Vanishing Points Of Oblique Lines. Continued
In the case of the line fd, the diagram shows the point d to be farther behind the picture plane than the point f, while the elevation shows the point d to be lower than the point /. Therefore the lin...
-Vanishing Point Diagram
76. The somewhat symmetrical figure formed by the vanishing traces of all the planes in the object, together with all vanishing points, HPP, and the vertical and horizontal projections of the station ...
-Parallel Or One-Point Perspective
79. When the diagram of an object is placed with one of its principal systems of horizontal lines parallel to the picture plane, it is said to be in Parallel Perspective. This is illustrated in Fig. 2...
-Method Of Perspective Plan
91. In the foregoing problems the perspective projection has been found from a diagram of the object. Another way of constructing a perspective projection is by the method of Perspective Plan. In this...
-Method Of Perspective Plan. Part 2
98. The measure point for any system of horizontal lines will be found on VH as far from the vanishing point of the system as the horizontal projection of that vanishing point is distant from the hori...
-Method Of Perspective Plan. Part 3
Thus, mab is to the left of SPV. The point bp is more distant than the point ap. Therefore, b1, which shows the true measure-ment for the point bp, must be laid off to the right of ap. 104. It someti...
-Curves
112. Perspective is essentially a science of straight lines. If curved lines occur in a problem, the simplest way to find their perspective is to refer the curves to straight lines. If the curve is o...
-Apparent Distortion
114. There seems to exist in the minds of some beginners in the study of perspective, the idea that the drawing of an object made in accordance with geometrical rules may differ essentially from the a...
-Apparent Distortion. Continued
HOUSE FOR HON. J. M. GROSVENOR, SWAMPSCOTT, MASS. E. J. Lewis, Architect, Boston, Mass. Plan of Ground Floor. PLAN OF HOUSE FOR HON. J. M. GROSVENOR, SWAMPSCOTT. MASS. E. J. Lewis, Architect, ...
-Shades And Shadows
1. The drawings of which an architect makes use can be divided into two general kinds: those for designing the building and illustrating to the client its scheme and appearance; and working drawings...
-Shadows Of Points
19. Problem I. To find the shadow of a given point on a given plane. Fig. 5 shows the plan and elevation of a given point a. It is required to find its shadow on a given plane, in this case the V pla...
-Shadows Of Lines
26. Problem II. To find the shadow of a given line on a given plane. A straight line is made up of a series of points, Rays of light passing through all of these points would form a plane of light. T...
-Shadows Of Planes
35. Problem III. To find the shad= o\v of a given plane on a given plane. Plane surfaces are bounded by straight or curved lines. Find the shadows of the bounding lines by the method shown in Proble...
-Shadows Of Solids
42. The methods for finding the shadows of solids vary with the nature of the given solid. The shadows of solids which are bounded by plane surfaces, none of which are parallel, or perpendicular, to t...
-Shadows Of Solids. Part 2
The shadow of the point f evidently falls on the edge of the prism at fs, see plan. This point f is one end of the shade line fg, therefore f is one point in the shadow of fg on the front face of the ...
-Shadows Of Solids. Part 3
In a similar manner the shadow of any point or line in the chimney can be found on the roof. Before completing the shadow of the chimney upon the roof let us consider the shadow of the flat band o...
-Shadows Of Solids. Part 4
The shadow of the shade line of the right-hand rail is simply the shadow of a broken line on the co-ordinate planes, and requires no detailed explanation. 58. Problem X. To find the shade and shadow ...
-Use Of Auxiliary Planes
72. In finding shadows on some of the double-curved surfaces of revolution, such as the surface of the spherical hollow, the scotia and the torus, we can make use of auxiliary planes to advantage, whe...
-Use Of Planes Of Light Perpendicular To The Coordinate Planes
79. Another method often necessary and convenient in casting the shadows of double-curved surfaces is the use of planes of light perpendicular to the co-ordinate planes. These auxiliary planes of lig...
-Short Methods Of Construction
83. The following problems illustrate short and convenient methods of construction for determining the shadows of lines, surfaces and solids, in the positions in which they commonly occur in architect...
-Short Methods Of Construction. Continued
90. Problem XXIII. To construct the shade line of a cylin= der whose axis is perpendicular or parallel to the ground line, Given the elevation of a cylinder, its axis being AB perpendicular to H. To ...
-Shades And Shadows. Examination Plates
98. General Directions. Plates are to be drawn in pencil. Show distinctly and leave all construction lines. Shadows are to be cross-hatched lightly, and their outline drawn with a distinct black line...
-Study Of The Orders. The Roman Orders
Introduction. This section on the Roman Orders is largely an adaptation and simplification of a work published in 1870, entitled An Analysis of the Five Orders by F. Laureys, architect, and professo...
-Parts Of The Order
Fig. 3. VIEW OF THE PIAZZA IN FRONT OF ST. PETER'S, ROME, ITALY. The Portico or Atrium was Built in 1629-67 by Lorenzo Bernini. The Dome of St. Peter's was Designed Principally by Michelange...
-Sections Of Classical Mouldings
Fig. 5. 27. Bases, capitals, lintels, cornices, imposts, and archivolts are composed of separate members of straight or curved profiles, and these members are called mouldings. 28. Classical moul...
-Tuscan Order
39. Although it has been deemed best to restrict this textbook to a consideration of the three Roman orders termed the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian, the simpler Tuscan Order is shown sufficiently in de...
-Doric Order
49. There are two styles of the Doric Order, the Denticular Order and the Mutular Order. The difference between these two styles is purely decorative and will be explained in the course of this analys...
-Doric Order. Continued
Both styles of Doric architraves are twenty-seven parts in height, of which four are given to the listel. The lower band of the mutular Doric architrave is nine parts in height; the height of the gut...
-The Ionic Order
65. The Ionic Order is distinguished principally by the form of its capital, of which the spiral scrolls, called volutes (Plate X) are the most important and determining characteristic. 66. The abacu...
-The Ionic Order. Continued
The section of the roll may be drawn thus: Draw the profile of the abacus and of the astragal. Then draw the exterior contour of the volute as far as its intersection with the line of the shaft, by es...
-The Corinthian Order
82 The Corinthian is an elaborately formal and dignified Order, and all the details which enter into its composition will bear analyzing with the greatest possible care. 83. The Corinthian capital (P...
-The Corinthian Order. Continued
92. The Corinthian architrave (Plate XVIII) is thirty parts in height and divided into three bands; the first, five and five-tenths; second, six and five-tenths; and the third, seven and five-tenths. ...
-Intercolumniation
107. Intercolumniation is the spacing of columns in the clear, especially of columns arranged in the form of a colonnade. When a figured dimension refers to the spacing it is invariably one diameter l...
-Superposition Of The Orders
116. The principles governing superposition, or the use of orders one above the other, as we find them in many of the Roman and Renaissance buildings, is that the natural method is followed in placing...
-Superposition Of The Orders. Continued
125. In elevation it will be seen that the piers of the second story (Fig. 22) are not as wide as those of the story below, by an appreciable amount. Although the figures given show a difference of on...
-Perspective Drawing Examination Plates
133. The student who has followed closely this analysis with its application, will have an intelligent knowledge of the Orders, and may put his knowledge to practical use in the exercises which follow...
-Perspective Drawing Examination Plates. Part 2
PLAN OF HIGH SCHOOL BUILDING, FAIRHAVEN, MASS. Brigham, Coveney & Bisbee, Architects, Boston, Mass. Halls and Corridors Lined with Marble and Limestone. Wood Finish, Quartered Oak Throughout. For...
-Perspective Drawing Examination Plates. Part 3
149. The surrounding walls are pierced by doors on the longitudinal axes of the gallery. These doors are surrounded by moulded architraves and crowned by entablatures or door caps. A wainscot, or dado...
-Perspective Drawing Examination Plates. Part 4
PLATE XXX1. (A reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plate XXXI.) PLATE XXXII. (A reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plate XXXII.) 156. The front is composed of three divisions separated ...
-Perspective Drawing Examination Plates. Part 5
165. Plate XXX shows an Ionic portico or porch attached to an edifice circular in form. The circular hall is six entablatures twenty parts in diameter, and the thickness of the wall is fifty parts. Th...
-Perspective Drawing Examination Plates. Part 6
Fig. '29. 171. The celling of the portico rests upon a small cornice and is divided into panels, which correspond to the columns and the spaces between the columns. In order to draw the caissons o...
-Foreword Vol8
RESIDENCE OF BRYCE J. ALLAN. ESQ. BEVERLY. MASS. Guy Lowell, Architect. Boston. Mass. For plan, see next succeeding plate. PLAN OF RESIDENCE FOR BRYCE J. ALLAN, ESQ., BEVERLY, MASS. Guy Lowel...
-Study Of The Orders. Part II. The Greek Orders Of Architecture
Of ancient buildings, the only ones which have come down to us in any sort of preservation are the temples built for the religious worship of the various peoples. All their domestic architecture was e...
-Study Of The Orders. Part II. The Greek Orders Of Architecture. Part 2
The rules, then, which we follow on all Classic work to-day must be considered not as the principles which governed the Greek designers, but as those which we have invented in order to render the use ...
-Study Of The Orders. Part II. The Greek Orders Of Architecture. Part 3
Refinement in Detail. We have already remarked that with the progress of architecture the column takes proportions more elegant, and the entablature diminishes in height. We shall also find that at th...
-Analysis Of The Greek Order
The Greek Order is an architectural composition resulting from the combination of a platform or Stylobate, a Column, and an Entablature. A pedestal is not employed with the Greek column. The platfor...
-Analysis Of The Greek Order. Continued
The presumption is that the flutes were finished in place at the time the building was constructed. There are certain buildings which seems to prove this theory, such as the Temple of Apollo at Delos,...
-The Doric Order
We find in Egypt, at the catacombs of Beni-Hassan, the rough, primitive type of the Doric Order; and it may be from here that the Greeks received their inspiration. It is sufficient to compare the des...
-The Doric Order. Part 2
Dates And Column Dimensions Of Greek Doric Temples Date Temple Column Dimensions 7th century B. C. Old Temple of Corinth Column not quite 4 diameters in height ...
-The Doric Order. Part 3
Fig. 54. Sections showing Early Wood and Actual Stone Construction of Parthenon. Again, it must be remembered that the triglyphs come directly over the columns beneath; and this fact, along with t...
-Greek-Doric-Order
PLATE XXXVIII. (A reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plate XXXVIII). The Greek Doric Capital. The capital of the Doric order consists of two principal parts, a plain Abacus and a moulding of ...
-Greek Mouldings
The various divisions of an Order are adorned with mouldings projecting beyond the face of the parts to which they are applied. They vary somewhat in shape, ornamentation, and number, in the different...
-Ionic Order
Origin of the Ionic Order. Very possibly, at about the same time as the Doric column was slowly developing from the rock-cut pier, the use of tree trunks for support had suggested a circular tapering ...
-Ionic Order. Part 2
The fourth century B. C. is, for the Ionic style, also a brilliant period, though it is no longer in Greece but in Asia Minor that we shall find the best material for study. There is the superb Tomb a...
-Ionic Order. Part 3
Fig. 57. Typical Greek Doric Bases. Attic Base of Ionic Column from the Erechtheum at Athens, Showing use of Guilloche Ornament on Torus Moulding. This type, as well as the accompanying form o...
-Ionic Order. Part 4
Fig. 60. View Showing Two Faces of Ionic Capital. Fig. 61. Ionic Column. The Plain Ionic Capital. There are two kinds of capital used with the Athenian Greek Ionic Orders, one known as the pla...
-Ionic Order. Part 5
General Type of Greek Ionic Order. By referring to plate XLI and Fig. 50, the description of this order can be better comprehended. The architrave produces an entirely different effect from the one us...
-Ionic Order. Part 6
The entablature used with the decorated Ionic capital on the Erechtheum is shown in Plate XLV, where the beautiful proportions of its various horizontal parts and mouldings may be studied carefully, T...
-Corinthian Order
The Greeks invented, besides those already mentioned, another Order-the Corinthian. In the early examples of this Order which remain, we see evidences of the same processes of experimentation as tende...
-Corinthian Order. Part 2
Fig. 71. Capital from Temple of Apollo Didymaeus, Miletus. Remains of Corinthian Temple of Zeus, Athens. With distant view of the Acropolis. Fig. 73. Tower of the Winds, Athens. Tower of t...
-Corinthian Order. Part 3
The Tholos at Epidauros. In Plate L both the exterior and interior treatment of the Tholos at Fpidauros are shown in detail. We again find that this instance of the use of the Corinthian Orders must b...
-Greek Details
Erechtheum Doorway. A doorway and window from the Erechtheum at Athens are drawn out in Figs. 83 and 84. In Fig. 84 the complete doorway (Fig. 85) is shown, while in Fig. 83 the details are drawn out ...
-The Entasis Of The Greek Column
The Greeks, in proportioning their Doric columns, arrived at an apparent system of entasis that is radically different from the more customary method employed on all Roman columns. No part of the out...
-Greek Intercolumniation
The intercolumniation of a colonnade is the spacing apart of the columns, the distance given being that in the clear between them. The distances between the centers of the columns are invariably one d...
-Greek Antae Or Pilasters
Doric Pilasters. The plan adopted by the Greeks in their Doric temple structures, was one that would necessarily increase the im portance of the column shafts, and required a sharp demarcation between...
-Temple Of Minerva Priene
Fig. 93. Comparative Column and Pilaster Treatment. These pilasters are sometimes given a base the same as the columns, but their cap and base are more customarily formed by the mouldings which ar...
-The Greek Orders Of Architecture. Examination Plates
In addition to the following examination plates, the student is advised to make such sketches or drawings of the different parts of the Order from the descriptions and references in the text as will e...
-Study Of The Orders. Part III. Architecture Of The Romans
Origin of Roman Architecture. While the architecture of Egypt, as well as that of other early civilizations, probably contributed toward the style that was eventually produced and defined by the Greek...
-Study Of The Orders. Part III. Architecture Of The Romans. Part 2
-ROMAN -USE - OF- ORDER-ARCH-PIER. Fig 99. This use of the Order produces an effect very different from that of the one or two examples of the use of attached columns already existing in Greek ar...
-Study Of The Orders. Part III. Architecture Of The Romans. Part 3
Plan of Roman Temples. The Romans followed, in their temples, the general form already used in the Greek work, although they seemed more partial to circular buildings than were the Greeks. The circula...
-Study Of The Orders. Part III. Architecture Of The Romans. Part 4
The pomp and luxury which had overtaken the nation expressed itself architecturally in the over-luxuriance of carving and ornament, repressed neither by taste, refinement, nor considerations of expens...
-The Roman Orders
The Roman Order is properly composed of three parts-the Column, the Entablature, and the Pedestal, as shown in Fig. 105. The pedestal is often omitted in modern work; and the term Order, as has alread...
-Early Roman Doric
All varieties of Roman columns, other than those distinctly marked by the design of their capitals as Ionic, Corinthian, or Composite, are termed Tuscan {Etruscan), unless it is known that the frieze ...
-Classic Roman Doric
It seems, therefore, that in Roman buildings the earlier usage followed very closely the Greek models in the position of the triglyph, and in the sections of the mouldings themselves; but the real Rom...
-Classic Roman Doric. Continued
The Pedestal of the Order. The possible derivation of the pedestal treatment is suggested in Fig. 125, where the Ionic Order of the Theater of Marcellus is drawn out. It is here seen that the pedestal...
-Classic Roman Ionic. Development And Use Of The Order
There are comparatively few remains of Roman buildings where the Ionic Order was originally used. Among the Romans this Order certainly never met with the favor accorded to it by the Greeks. At the sa...
-Classic Roman Corinthian. Transition From Greek To Roman Order, And Difference Between The Two
A mere glance at the architecture of the Romans shows that they depended upon richness of ornamentation and tremendous size to make an effect upon the beholder. They found that the Corinthian Order pr...
-Classic Roman Corinthian. Transition From Greek To Roman Order. Part 2
Fig. 127. Early Corinthian Capital. An early Corinthian capital (Fig. 127), taken from the church of S. Niccolo in Carcere, shows a capital, evidently of Greek workmanship, which bears a close rel...
-Classic Roman Corinthian. Transition From Greek To Roman Order. Part 3
PLATE LIII. (A reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plate LIII). CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, LINCOLN PARK, CHICAGO, ILL. Patton & Fisher, Architects, Chicago, 111. Built ln 1891. There is...
-Classic Roman Corinthian. Transition From Greek To Roman Order. Part 4
This difference is well contrasted in Plate LI I, where an early example (the one used on the Temple of Jupiter Olympus at Athens) and one of the late Orders (that of the Temple of Saturn at Rome) are...
-The Composite Order
The Arch of Titus (Fig. 134) contains the earliest known example in Rome of the use of the Composite Order. However, while the first example in Rome, there are still earlier ones existing in cities of...
-Roman Gateways And Triumphal Arches
Of the famous triumphal arches left by Roman builders, the majority employed the use of the Order in either the Corinthian or Composite forms. These arches were generally of two types. In one-the gran...
-Roman Doorways
The doorway shown in Fig. 138 was drawn and rendered by Emanuel Brune, at just one-tenth of its original size, from the remains of a doorway in the Doric Temple of Hercules at Cora. The scale in the c...
-Roman Windows
Roman window openings are, in earlier buildings, quite closely copied from Greek models, although in work of the true Roman period, such as the Temple of Vesta at Tivoli, the mouldings themselves are ...
-Roman Mouldings
The mouldings employed by the Romans are generally followed, through the medium of the Renaissance work of Italy and England, in most of the work executed to-day; and these sections are therefore evid...
-Entasis Of The Roman Column
The Romans seem to have adopted one general method of diminishing or tapering their columns, evidently based on the Ionic and Corinthian shafts of the Greek Orders. In adapting to their own purposes t...
-Roman Pediments
Fig. 142 shows two methods of proportioning a pediment. The upper one is the Renaissance custom that is shown by Serlio; the lower is a method given by the Roman architect and writer, Vitruvius. Of t...
-Roman Intercolumniation
The Roman custom in the spacing of columns is of much greater interest to the architect of to-day than the custom of the Greeks, in that the Romans were not held down by the considerations that restri...
-Roman Pilasters
The use of pilasters by the Romans was very different from the Greek custom, and the pilaster is given a much more important place in their architectural development. The Roman pilaster in the later ...
-Architecture Of The Romans. Examination Plates
In addition to the following Examination Plates, the student is expected to make such sketches or drawings of the different parts of the Order, from the descriptions and references in the text, as wil...
-Freehand Examination Sketches
The student is required to draw freehand the following sketches, utilizing the information he has obtained from the Plates included in the foregoing section, and is to be particular to render the draw...
-Glossary. A Glossary Of Architectural Terms And Classical Proper Names
In tlie scheme of pronunciation, all long vowels are marked; those having no quantity indicated are short. A Abacus (ab'a-kus). The square plinth or tablet forming the upper or crowning member of th...
-Glossary. A Glossary Of Architectural Terms And Classical Proper Names. Part 2
Areeostyle (a-re'o-stll). An arrangement of columns having four diameter spaces, or more than three, between their shafts, center to center. (See Fig. 19). Arcade (ar-kad). A continuous series of arc...
-Glossary. A Glossary Of Architectural Terms And Classical Proper Names. Part 3
Belt course (belt kors). A course of stone or moulded work carried at the same level across or around a building. (See F, Fig. 2). Beni-Hassan (ba'ne-has'san). A village on the Nile, near which are s...
-Glossary. A Glossary Of Architectural Terms And Classical Proper Names. Part 4
Colonnade (kol-o-nad). A row of connected columns placed at regular intervals. (Sec Plate XXV). Column (kol'um). A part of the Classic Order (see Fig. 3). A solid, vertical body of greater height th...
-Glossary. A Glossary Of Architectural Terms And Classical Proper Names. Part 5
Detail (de'tal). Enlarged portion, a section or part of a plan or elevation, usually drawn at large scale for the use of the workmen. Diagonal (di-ag'o-nal). A straight line drawn from opposite angle...
-Glossary. A Glossary Of Architectural Terms And Classical Proper Names. Part 6
Floweret (flou-er-ef). A small flower; one of the parts of the Classic Corinthian and Composite capitals. (See Plate XV). Flute (floot). One of a series of curved furrows, usually semicircular in pla...
-Glossary. A Glossary Of Architectural Terms And Classical Proper Names. Part 7
Lateral (lat'e-ral). Proceeding from or to, or situated at, a side; or at right angles to the length or height. (See Fig. 61). Leaf and-Dart (lef-and-dart). An ornamental design-water plant and arrow...
-Glossary. A Glossary Of Architectural Terms And Classical Proper Names. Part 8
P Paestum (pes'tum). A city in Lucania famous for the ruins of two or more Doric temples. Palatine (pal'a-tln). One of the seven hills of Rome. Palladio (pal-lad'i-o). An Italian writer and architect...
-Glossary. A Glossary Of Architectural Terms And Classical Proper Names. Part 9
Pompey (pom'pi). Famous Roman general; born 106 B. C; murdered in Egypt in 48 B. C. Formed with Caesar and Crassus the First Triumvirate, 60 B. C.; later a political rival of Caesar, by whom he was cr...
-Glossary. A Glossary Of Architectural Terms And Classical Proper Names. Part 10
Scipto (sip'i-o). The name of several Roman generals whose Tombs near the Appian Way are well known. (See Fig. 108). Scotia (sko'ti-a). A concave moulding, as between the fillets in the base of the D...
-Bibliography. Orders Of Architecture
Note-The titles marked with asterisks are considered the most Important, those with a double asterisk being especially recommended. **Buhlmann: Die Architektur des Classischen Alterthums und der Rena...
-Books On Architecture Relating To The Orders
**Anderson and Spiers: Architecture of Greece and Rome. New York: Chas. Scribner'e Sons. $7.50 net. A modern and complete English work giving, in at tractive form, descriptions and illustrations of Gr...
-Greek Architecture
**Academie de la France a Rome: Rcstaurations des Monuments Antiques. (Restorations of Ancient Monuments.) Paris. 1877-90. Folding plates; viz.: Temple of Jupiter, Pan-Hellenic, at Ęgina. By C. Gamier...
-Rendering In Pen And Ink
To render in pen and ink a large and important drawing is no small accomplishment. Usually years of experience are necessary before one can sucess-fully undertake such drawings. Now and then a stud...
-Line Work
Quality of Line. Too much stress cannot be laid on the importance of a good line, however insignificant it may seem. Care in each individual line is absolutely necessary for good work. A line that is ...
-Light And Shade
Values. If several lines are drawn parallel and quite close together, but not touching, a gray, or half-tone value is the result. Lines drawn so close together that the ink of one runs into that of t...
-Pencil Work
A pencil is a quicker medium for the rendering of a sketch than a pen. A pencil sketch may be made directly on a sheet of drawing paper, and completed on that same sheet. But it is neater to first dra...
-A Study In Pen And Ink Rendering
For criticism of this drawing- see back of page SCHOOL HOUSE * As to its composition, a scheme is here used that is very frequently possible and advisable, i. e., the making of a large light effect o...
-Rendering In Pen And Ink. Examination Plates
Before attempting to render the drawings in ink, the student is advised to practice both with pencil and ink, using the practice plates provided for the purpose. Plate I In order to get quickly into...
-Foreword Vol9
CLUB BUILDING FOR THE PEORIA COUNTRY CLUB, PEORIA, ILL. Herbert Edmund Hewitt, Architect, Peoria, IlI. For plan, see next succeeding plate. PLANS OF THE PEORIA COUNTRY CLUB, PEORIA, ILL. Herbe...
-Electric Wiring. Methods Of Wiring
The different methods of wiring which are now approved by the National Board of Fire Underwriters, may be classified under four general heads, as follows: 1. Wires Run Concealed in Conduits. 2. Wire...
-Wires Run In Rigid Conduit
The form of rigid metal conduit now used almost exclusively, consists of plain iron gaspipe the interior surface of which has been prepared by removing the scale and by removing the Irregularities, an...
-Wires Run In Rigid Conduit. Continued
Fig. 2. Flexible Steel Conduit. Courtesy of Sterling Electric O., Troy, N.Y. Table V. Greenfield Flexible Steel Conduit Inside Diameter Outside Diameter 5/16 inch 2...
-Wires Run In Moulding
Moulding is very extensively used for electric circuit work, in extending circuits in buildings which have already been wired, and also in wiring buildings which were not provided with electric circui...
-Concealed Knob And Tube Wiring
This method of' wiring is still allowed by the National Electric Code, although many vigorous attempts have been made to have it abolished. Each of these attempts has met with the strongest oppositio...
-Fibrous Tubing
Fibrous tubing is frequenly used with knob and tube wiring, and the regulations governing its use are given in ject to moisture. The cost of wiring in flexible fibrous tubing is approximately about th...
-Wires Run Exposed On Insulators
This method of wiring has the advantages of cheapness,durability, and accessibility. Cheapness. The relative cost of this method of wiring as compared with that of the concealed conduit system, is ab...
-Wires Run Exposed On Insulators. Part 2
Fig. 27. intermediate Support for Conductor between Wide-Spaced Beams. Fig. 26. Method of Supporting a Small Conductor. Fig. 28. Conductors Protected by Wooden Guard Strips on Low Ceiling. ...
-Wires Run Exposed On Insulators. Part 3
It will readily be seen, however, that a system such as that outlined in the second scheme having two lamps, would be impracticable for ordinary purposes, for the reason that it would always require t...
-Calculation Of Sizes Of Conductors
The formula for calculating the size of conductors for direct currents, where the length, load, and loss in volts are given, is as follows: The size of conductor (in circular mils) is equal to the cu...
-Method Of Planning A Wiring Installation
The first step in planning a wiring installation, is to gather all the data which will affect either directly or indirectly the system of wiring and the manner in which the conductors are to be instal...
-Method Of Planning A Wiring Installation. Part 2
The chase, if possible, should be continuous from the cellar to the roof, or as far as needed. This is necessary in order to avoid unnecessary bends or elbows, which are objectionable for many reasons...
-Method Of Planning A Wiring Installation. Part 3
Fig. 32. Running Conductors Concealed under Floor in Wooden Frame Building. Up to this time, the location of the distribution centers has been made solely with reference to architectural consideratio...
-Testing A Wiring Installation
Where possible, two tests of the electric wiring equipment should be made, one after the wiring itself is entirely completed, and switches, cut-out panels, etc., are connected; and the second one afte...
-Alternating-Current Circuits
It is not within the province of this chapter to treat the various alternating-current phenomena, but simply to outline the modifications which should be made in designing and calculating electric lig...
-Calculation of Alternating-Current Circuits
In the instruction paper on Power Stations and Transmission, a method is given for calculating alternating-current lines by means of formulae, and data are given regarding power factor and the calcu...
-Calculation of Alternating-Current Circuits. Part 2
The percentage loss of power in the line has not, as with direct current, the same value as the percentage drop. This is due to the fact that the line has reactance, and also that the apparent power d...
-Calculation of Alternating-Current Circuits. Part 3
Consider a transformer built for transformation between 1,000 and 100 volts. Suppose the resistance- and reactance-E. M. F.'s given are 2 percent and 7 per cent respectively. Then the corresponding vo...
-Wiring An Office Building
The building selected as a typical sample of a wiring installation is that of an office building located in Washington, D. C. The figures shown are reproductions of the plans actually used in installi...
-Switchboard
On the switchboard in the basement are mounted wattmeters, provided by the local electric company, and the various switches required for the control and operation of the lighting and power feeders. Th...
-Character Of Load
The building is occupied partly as a newspaper office, and there are several large presses in addition to the usual linotype machines, trimmers, shavers, cutters, saws, etc. There are also electricall...
-Feeders And Mains
The arrangement of the various feeders and mains, the cut-out centers, mains, etc., which they supply, are shown diagrammatically in Fig. 41, which also gives in schedule the sizes of feeders, mains, ...
-Basement
The plan of the basement, Fig. 42, shows the branch circuit wiring for the outlets in the basement, and the location of the main switchboard. It also shows the trunk cables for the interconnection sys...
-Interconnection System
Fig. 46 is a diagram of the interconnection system, showing the main interconnection box located in the base ment; adjoining this main box is located the terminal box of the local telephone company. A...
-Outlet-Boxes, Cut-Out Panels, And Other Accessories
Outlet-Boxes Before the introduction of iron conduits, outletboxes were considered unnecessary, and with a few exceptions were not used, the conduits being brought to the outlet and cut off after the...
-Bushings
The Rules of the National Electric Code require that conduits entering junction-boxes, outlet-boxes, or cut-out cabinets shall be provided with approved bushings, fitted to protect the wire from abras...
-Overhead Linework
The advantages of overhead linework as compared with underground linework are that it is much less expensive; it is more readily and more quickly installed; and it can be more readily inspected and re...
-Placing Of Poles
As a general rule, the poles should be set from 100 to 125 feel apart, which is equivalent to 53 to 42 poles per mile. Under certain conditions, these spacings given will have to be modified; but if ...
-Poles
Poles should be of selected quality of chestnut or cedar, and should be sound and free from cracks, knots, or other flaws. Experience has proven that chestnut and cedar poles are the most durable and ...
-Electric Bell Wiring
In wiring for electric bells to be operated by batteries, the danger of causing fires from short circuits or poor contacts does not exist as in the case of wiring for light and power, because the curr...
-Wire
The common sizes of wire in use for bell work are Nos. 18, 20, and 22. In general, however, No. 20 will be found satisfactory as it is usually sufficiently large, while in many cases No. 22 is not s...
-Methods Of Wiring
In running wires, the shortest and most direct route should, of course, be taken between the battery, bells, and bell pushes. There are two cases to be considered. The better method is that in which t...
-Joints
When making a joint, care should be taken to have a firm, clean connection, both mechanically and electrically, and this must always be soldered to prevent corrosion. The insulation should be stripped...
-Outfit
The three essential parts of the electric bell outfit are the bell push, which furnishes a means of opening and closing the circuit at will, the battery, which furnishes the current for operating the ...
-Circuits
The possible combinations of the various parts into complete circuits are so varied that it would be impossible to describe them all; in fact, almost every one is to a certain extent a special problem...
-Electric Lighting. History And Development
The history of electric lighting as a commercial proposition begins with the invention of the Gramme dynamo, by Z. J. Gramme, in 1870, together with the introduction of the Jablochkoff candle or ligh...
-Incandescent Lamps
The incandescent lamp is by far the most common type of lamp used, and the principle of its operation is as follows: If a current I is sent through a conductor whose resistance is R, for a time t, th...
-Incandescent Lamps. Part 2
2. The character of the surface is changed from a dull black and comparatively soft nature to a bright gray coating which is much harder and which increases the life and efficiency of the filament. E...
-Incandescent Lamps. Part 3
Table I. Effects Of Change In Voltage Standard 3.5-Watt Lamp VOLTAGE Per Cent of Normal Candle-Power Per Cent of Normal Watts Per Candle-Power Life Per Cent of Normal...
-Distribution Of Light
In Fig. 1 are shown various forms of filaments used in incandescent lamps, and Figs. 7 and 8 show the distribution of light from a single-loop filament of cylindrical crosssection Fig. 7 shows the dis...
-Mean Spherical Candle-Power
When comparing lamps which give an entirely different light distribution, the mean horizontal candle-power does not form a proper basis for such comparison, and the mean spherical or the mean hemisphe...
-The Gem Metallized Filament Lamp
When the incandescent lamp was first well established commercially, the useful life of a unit, when operated at 3.1 watts per candle, was about 200 hours. The improvements in the process of manufactur...
-The Tungsten Lamp
Following closely upon the development of the tantalum lamp came the tungsten lamp. Tungsten possesses a very high melting point and an indirect method is employed in forming filaments for incandescen...
-The Osmium Lamp
Very efficient incandescent lamps have been constructed using osmium for the filament. An indirect method is resorted to in the formation of these filaments. Osmium lamps have not been successful for ...
-Other Metallic Filament Lamps
Table VII gives the melting points of several metals which are highly refractory and those already mentioned are not the only ones which have been successfully used in incandescent lamps. Titanium, zi...
-The Helion Lamp
The helion lamp, which gives considerable promise of commercial development, is a compromise between the carbon lamp and the metallic filament lamp. A slender filament of carbon is flashed in a compou...
-The Nernst Lamp
The Nernst lamp is still another form of incandescent lamp, several types of which are shown in Figs. 19, 20, 21, and 22. This lamp uses for the incandescent material certain oxides of the rare earth...
-Comparison Of The Different Types Of Incandescent Lamps
A direct comparison of the different types of incandescent lamps cannot be made but it is desirable at this time to note the following points: The lamps which are commercial in the United States at th...
-Special Lamps. The Mercury Vapor Lamp
The mercury vapor lamp in this country is put on the market by the Cooper-Hewitt Electric Company and it is being used to a considerable extent for industrial illumination. In this mercury vapor, rend...
-The Moore Tube Light
The Moore light makes use of the familiar Geissler tube discharge - discharge of electricity through a vacuum tube - as a source of illumination. The practical application of this discharge to a syste...
-The Electric Arc
Suppose two carbon rods are connected in an electric circuit, and the circuit closed by touching the tips of these rods together; on separating the carbons again the circuit will not be broken, provid...
-Arc-Lamp Mechanisms
In a practical lamp we must have not only a pair of carbons for producing the arc, but also means for supporting these carbons, together with suitable arrangements for leading the current to them and ...
-Shunt Mechanisms
In shunt lamps, the carbons are held apart before the current is turned on, and the circuit is closed through a solenoid connected in across the gap so formed. All of the current must pass through thi...
-Series Mechanisms
With the series-lamp mechanism, the carbons are together when the lamp is first started and the current, flowing in the series coil, separates the electrodes, striking the arc. When the arc is too lo...
-Differential Mechanisms
In the differential lamp, the series and shunt mechanisms are combined, the carbons being together at the start, and the series coil arranged so as to separate them while the shunt coil is connected a...
-Types Of Arc Lamps
Arc lamps are constructed to operate on direct-current or alternating-current systems when connected in series or in multiple. They are also made in both the open and the enclosed forms. By an open a...
-Direct-Current Arcs
Open Types of Arcs for direct-current systems were the first to be used to any great extent. When used they are always connected in series, and are run from some form of special arc machine, a descrip...
-Alternating-Current Arcs
These do not differ greatly in construction from the direct-current arcs. When iron or other metal parts are used in the controlling mechanism, they must be laminated or so constructed as to keep down...
-Interchangeable Arc
Interchangeable arcs are manufactured which may be readily adjusted so as to operate on either direct or alternating current, and on voltages from 110 to 220. Two lamps may be run in series on 220-vol...
-Rating Of Arc Lamps
Open arcs have been classified as follows: Full Area, 2,000 candle-power taking 9.5 to 10 amps or 450-480 watts. Half Area, 1,200candle-power taking 6.5 to 7 amps, or 325-350 watts. These candle-po...
-Carbons For Arc Lamps
Carbons are either moulded or forced from a product known as petroleum coke or from similar materials such as lampblack. The material is thoroughly dried by heating to a high temperature, then ground ...
-The Flaming Arc
In the carbon arc the arc proper gives out but a small percentage of the total amount of light emitted. In order to obtain a light in which more of the source of luminosity is in the arc itself, exper...
-Bremer Arc
The Bremer flaming arc lamp was introduced commercially in 1899, and since some of its principles are incorporated in many of the lamps on the market to-day, it will be briefly described here. The dia...
-Magnetite Arc
The magnetite arc employs a copper disk as one electrode; and a magnetite stick - formed by forcing magnetite, to which titanium salts are usually added, into a thin sheet steel tube is used as the ot...
-Power Distribution
The question of power distribution for electric lamps and other appliances is taken up fully in the section on that subject, therefore it will be treated very briefly here. The systems may be divided ...
-The Series System
This is the most simple of the three; the lamps, as the name indicates, are connected in series as shown in Fig. 45. A constant load is necessary if a constant potential is to be used. If the load is ...
-Multiple Series Or Series-Multiple Systems
These combine several lamps in series, and these series groups in multiple, or several lamps in multiple and these multiple groups in series, respectively. They have but a limited application. Multi...
-Illumination
Illumination may be defined as the quality and quantity of which aids in the discrimination of outline and the perception of color. not only the quantity, but the quality of the light, as well as the ...
-Intrinsic Brightness
By intrinsic brightness is meant the amount of light emitted per unit surface of the light source. Table XII gives the intrinsic brightness of several light sources. Table XII. Intrinsic Brilliancies...
-Regular Reflection
Regular reflection is the term applied to reflection of light when the reflected rays are parallel. It is of such a nature that the image of the light source is seen in the reflection. The reflection ...
-Irregular Reflection
Irregular reflection, or diffusion, consists of reflection in which the reflected rays of light are not parallel but take various directions, thus destroying the image of the light source. Rough, unpo...
-Residence Lighting
Type Of Lamps The lamps used for this class of lighting are limited to the less powerful units - namely, incandescent or Nernst lamps varying in candle-power from 8 to 50 per unit. These should alway...
-Calculation Of Illumination
In determining the value of illumination, not only the candle-power of the units, but the amount of reflected light must be considered for the given location of the lamps. Following is a formula based...
-Intensity Constants For Incandescent Lamps
Tungsten lamps rates at 1.25 watts per horizontal candle-power, clear prismatic reflectors, either bowl or concentrating, large room; light ceiling; dark walls; lamps pendant; height from 8 to 15 feet...
-Intensity Constants For Arc Lamps
5-ampere, enclosed, direct-current arc on 110-volt circuit; clear inner, opal outer globe; no reflector; large room; light ceiling; medium walls; height from 9 to 14 feet .......... .50 ...
-Arrangement Of Lamps
An arrangement of lamps giving a uniform illumination cannot be well applied to residences on account of the number of units required, and the inartistic effect. We are limited to chandeliers, side li...
-Arrangement Of Lamps. Continued
Fig. 56. Distribution Curve for a G. E. 50-c.p. Meridian Lamp. Dr. Louis Bell gives the following in connection with residence lighting: Table XV. Residence Lighting Data Room ...
-Lighting Of Public Halls, Offices, Etc
Lighting of public halls and other large interiors differs from the illumination of residences in that there is usually less reflected light, and, again, the distance of the light sources from the pla...
-Skylight Work
The upper illustration shows the layout of a flat pitched skylight whose curb measures 6' - 0 X 7' - 6, the run of the rafter or length of the glass being 6' 0 on a horizontal line. Five bars are ...
-Sheet Metal Work Part I. Skylight Work
Where formerly skylights were constructed from wrought iron or wood, to-day in all the large cities they are being made of galvanized sheet iron and copper. Sheet metal skylights, having by their pecu...
-Construction
The construction of a sheet metal skylight is a very simple matter, if the patterns for the various intersections are properly developed. For example, the bar shown in Fig. 145 consists of a piece of ...
-Various Shapes Of Bars
In addition to the shapes of bars shown in Figs. 145 to 148 inclusive, there is shown in Fig. 151 a plain bar without any condensation gutters, the joint being at A. B B represents the glass resting o...
-Various Shapes Of Curbs
In Figs. 157, 158 and 159 are shown a few shapes of curbs which are used in connection with flat skylights. A in Fig. 157 shows the curb for the three sides of a flat skylight, formed in one piece wit...
-Various Styles Of Skylights
In Fig. 165 is shown what is known as a single-pitch light, and is placed on a curb made by the carpenter which has the desired pitch. Fig. 166. These skylights are chiefly used on steep roofs as...
-Development Of Patterns For A Hipped Skylight
The following illustrations and text will explain the principles involved in developing the patterns for the ventilator, curb, hip bar, common bar, jack bar, and cross bar or clip, in a hipped skyligh...
-Development Of Patterns For A Hipped Skylight. Part 2
Having obtained he true profile E4 the pattern for the hip bar is obtained by drawing the stretchout line O P at right angles 1T 1P. Take the stretchout of the profile E4 and place it on O P as shown...
-Development Of Patterns For A Hipped Skylight. Part 3
A B represents the upper part of the turret proper with a drip bent on same, as shown at B, against which the sashes close, and a double seam, as shown at A, which makes a tight joint, takes out the t...
-Development Of Patterns For A Hipped Skylight. Part 4
Fig 186. Rule 1. To obtain the length of the ridge bar in a skylight without a ventilator, as in Fig. 186, deduct the short side of the frame or curb from the long side. Example: In Fig. 186, tak...
-Development Of Patterns For A Hipped Skylight. Part 5
Tables The following tables will prove useful in figuring the quantity of material required to cover a given number of square feet. Flat-Seam Roofing Table showing quantity of 14 x 20-inch tin requ...
-Other Forms Of Metal Roofing
There is another form of roofing known as metal slates and shingles, pressed in various geometrical designs with water-tight lock attachments so that no solder is required in laying the roof. Fig. 1S9...
-Tools Required
Fig. 195 shows the various hand tools required by the metal roofer; starting at the left we have the soldering copper, mallet, scraper stretch-awl, shears, hammer, and dividers. In addition to these h...
-Roof Mensuration
While some mechanics understand thoroughly the methods of laying the various kinds of roofing, there are some, however, who do not understand how to figure from architects' or scale drawings the amou...
-Roof Mensuration. Part 2
Take the distance F L in the plan and place it a shown from Fo to Lo, and draw a line from Lo to F1, which is the true length of the valley shown by L F in the plan. Multiply this length by 2, which w...
-Roof Mensuration. Part 3
Fig. 207 shows a part plan of a roof and chimney A, around which the flashing B C D E is to be placed, and explains how the corners c and D are double seamed, whether on a chimney, bulkhead, or any ot...
-Roof Mensuration. Part 4
Fig. 212. The roof being completed, the rosin is scraped off the seams and the roof cleaned and painted with good iron oxide and linseed oil paint. Some roofers omit the scraping of rosin and pai...
-Standing-Seam Roofing
Another form of metal roofing is that known as standing seam, which is used on steep roofs not less than 1/5 pitch, or 1/5 the width of the building. It consists of metal sheets whose cross or horizon...
-Corrugated Iron Roofing And Siding
Corrugated iron is used for roofs and sides of buildings. It is usually laid directly upon the purlins in roofs constructed as shown in Figs. 230 and 231, the former being constructed to receive sidin...
-Laying Corrugated Roofing
When laying corrugated iron on wood sheathing use galvanized iron nails and lead washers. The advantage in using lead washers is that they make a tight joint and prevent leaking and rusting at the nai...
-Laying Corrugated Siding
Before putting on any corrugated siding or clapboarding, as shown in Fig. 248, a finish is usually made at the eaves by means of a hanging gutter or a plain cornice, shown in Fig. 240, which is fasten...
-Cornice Over Brick Bay
An elevation and plan of a brick bay are shown in the illustration, the sides of which are 8 inches, 3 feet 2 inches and 5 feet 10 inches wide. Laps or flanges for soldering are to be allowed on the 3...
-Sheet Metal Work. Part II. Cornice Work
There is no trade in the building line to-day which has made such rapid progress as that of Sheet-Metal Cornice, or Architectural Sheet- Metal Work It is not very long since the general scope of thi...
-Shop Tools
One of the most important tools in cornice or architectural sheet-metal working shop is the brake. On those operated by hand, sheets are bent up to 8 feet in one continuous length. In the larger shops...
-Method Employed For Obtaining Patterns
The principles applied to cylinder developments as explained in the Tinsmithing and Sheet Metal Work courses, under the heading of Parallel-Line Developments, are also applicable for obtaining the p...
-Various Shapes Of Mouldings
The style of mouldings arising in the cornice shop are chiefly Roman, and are obtained by using the arcs of a circle. In some cases, Greek mouldings are used, the outlines of which follow the curves o...
-Practical Miter Cutting
Under this heading come the practical shop problems. The problems which will follow should be drawn to any desired scale by the student, developed, and bent from stiff cardboard to prove the accuracy ...
-Practical Miter Cutting. Part 2
Fig. 280. A shows the part elevation of the panel; a b and c d, the miter-lines drawn at angles of 45o. In its proper position with the lines of the mould-ing, draw the profile B, the curve or mou...
-Practical Miter Cutting. Part 3
At right angles to C 2, draw the line J K, upon which place the stretchout of the profile in elevation as shown by similar figures on the stretchout line, through which drop lines perpendicular to J K...
-Practical Miter Cutting. Part 4
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 in A, and parallel to F H, draw lines indefinitely, which intersect by lines drawn at right angles to C B in plan from similarly numbered intersection in the pilaster C D B, t...
-Practical Miter Cutting. Part 5
Fig. 300. Fig. 301. Note the difference in the shapes and spaces between these two modified profiles and the given profile A. It will be noticed that a portion of the gable moulding miters on ...
-Practical Miter Cutting. Part 6
Fig. 307. Fig. 308. For the pattern for that part of the moulding shown by C D E Q' in plan, and H G 8' 1' in elevation, proceed as follows: At right angles to 1 H in elevation, draw the line ...
-Practical Miter Cutting. Part 7
In Fig. 315 are shown the principles employed for obtaining the patterns for the side, face, sink strips, cap, and returns for a raking bracket, These principles can be applied to any form or angle in...
-Practical Miter Cutting. Part 8
In Fig. 319 are shown a plan and elevation of a moulding which has more projection on the front than on the side. In other words, A B represents the plan of a brick pier, around which a cornice is to ...
-Practical Miter Cutting. Part 9
When bending the points on theline HK, it is necessary to have a stay or profile so that we may know at what angle the bend should be made. To obtain this stay, erect from the corner B in Fig. 325 a l...
-Practical Miter Cutting. Part 10
Fig. 329. Before the patterns can be obtained, a developed surface of the mansard must be draw n. Therefore, from B (Fig. 330), drop a vertical line as B J, intersecting the line C K at J. Now tak...
-Practical Miter Cutting. Part 11
At right angles to U V, and from the figures, draw lines, which intersect with those of similar numbers drawn at right angles to YZ. Through these points, trace a line. Then will U XYZ be the half-p...
-Development Of Blanks For Curved Mouldings
Our first attention will be given to the methods of construction, it being necessary that we know the methods of construction before the blank can be laid out For example, in Fig 337 is a part elevati...
-Shop Tools Employed
When working any circular mould by hand, all that is required in the way of tools is various-sized raising and stretching hammers, square stake, blow-horn stake, and mandrel including raising blocks m...
-Principles Employed For Obtaining Approximate Blanks For Curved Mouldings Hammered By Hand
The governing principles underlying all such operations are the same as every sheet-metal worker uses in the laying out of the simple patterns in flaring ware. In other words, one who understands how ...
-Principles For Obtaining Approximate Blanks For Curved Mouldings Hammered By Hand. Continued
In Fig. 344 is shown an illustration of a round finial which contains moulds, the principles of which have already been described in the preceding problems. The ball A is made of either horizontal or ...
-Approximate Blanks For Curved Mouldings Hammered By Machine
The principles employed in averaging the profile for a moulding to be rolled or hammered by machine do not differ to any material extent from those used in the case of mouldings hammered by hand. Fig...
-Plastering
The subject of plastering in relation to modern dwellings is necessarily divided into two sections. The first treats of the plastering of walls on the interior of the house; the second will briefly de...
-Lathing. Wood Laths
Wood laths are put up in bundles of 100 laths; and are nailed upon the studdings of the wooden frame, with a space of one-quarter inch between them. This distance is sufficient to allow for lath shrin...
-Metal Lath
Of late years many varieties of metal lath have been placed upon the market. The use of such lath is generally required on boiler-room ceilings, and in other places exposed to strong artificial heat. ...
-Plaster Materials
Plaster is principally composed of lime, sand, hair, and water. Lime is obtained in different sections of the country from calcined limestone, the carbonic acid and moisture contained in the stone be...
-Plaster Materials. Continued
If too much water is used in slaking the lime - especially if a too great amount is added at once - the pile is chilled and forms into lumps that slake too tardily. If too little water is added, the l...
-Mixing The Mortar
The amount of sand to be mixed in with the lime paste is a variable quantity, depending upon the sand itself, upon the quality and thickness of the lime paste, and also upon the nature of the work for...
-Three-Coat Work
The best interior plaster work always used to be put on in three coats, and was worked to a final thickness of about seven-eighths of an inch. Of the three coatings, the first is the thickest, so that...
-Rough Plaster Finish
If the mortar is to be finished with a sand or rough finish, two coats are applied. The second coat - which should be put on only after the first is thoroughly dry - is substantially the same as the ...
-The Finish Coat
The finish, skim, or white coat should never be applied until the earlier coat or coats are thoroughly dry and hard, as it is liable to crack if put on before - quite aside from the possible danger of...
-Patent Plasters
Patent plasters, such as adamant, etc., are not often employed for private dwellings, being chiefly suitable for mercantile purposes. The patent plaster has certain advantages that are self-evident - ...
-Back Plastering
Occasionally a wood-framed house is back-plastered for warmth. This process consists in nailing a strip of seven-eighths inch furring against the inside of the boarding on each side of the studs. The ...
-Plaster Cracks
Cracks in plaster occur from several causes. If the distance between the ends of the laths, where they join on the studding or furring, is too great, the larger amount of plaster in that place, when d...
-Plaster Moulding
Plaster mouldings upon ceilings and walls are less frequently employed now than a few years ago, when, especially at the intersection of wall and ceiling, a heavy cornice of plaster was the common met...
-Exterior Plastering
Although exterior plaster surfacing for dwellings has been in use in Europe for many years, it has but recently met with favor in this country. In Italy, plaster, or stucco, applied in large, unbroken...
-Wood Lath
Wood lath is occasionally used, and, in certain sections of the country, apparently with good results. It may be employed in two ways - one, in the ordinary manner, only spacing the laths somewhat fur...
-Putting On The Plaster
Exterior plaster requires three-coat work. The first or scratch coat is indispensable when metal or wire lath is used, but almost equally important over wood lath. This first coat should be scratched ...
-Painting
Introductory The first thing a man wishes to know when he contemplates painting a house, is the cost. This will obviously depend on the cost of labor, of materials, and the kind of materials chosen. ...
-Pigments And Vehicles
Paint is a mixture of a finely-divided solid substance with a liquid which, when spread on a solid surface with a brush or otherwise, will adhere and in a short time form - by evaporation, or more com...
-Adulterants
All these pigments may be adulterated with barytes, or with terra alba (sulphate of lime), sometimes with whiting (carbonate of lime). These adulterants are powdered minerals. Barytes is a good pigmen...
-Paint And Varnish Brushes
A brush that has only a low price to recommend it will prove a poor investment. If properly cared for, brushes last a long time, and it pays to have good ones. The first sign of a good brush is unifor...
-Society For Testing Materials
It is worth noting that this committee, made up equally of expert paint manufacturers and experts employed by the large consumers, unanimously agreed that no larger brush than this should be used in m...
-Care Of Brushes
Hair and bristle brushes must be kept clean and soft; this can be done by care and faithfulness. They should not be allowed to become dry with paint or varnish in them. To prevent this, wash them out ...
-Fillers
Fillers are of two kinds - paste and liquid. Paste fillers are something like a very thick paint, and are composed of some solid powdered substance, usually silica or powdered quartz, mixed with a qui...
-House Painting. Inside Work
All window and door frames, whether they are to be finished with paint or varnish, should receive a good coat of paint made with some cheap pigment, such as iron oxide, and boiled oil, applied to the ...
-Painting Plastered Walls
Old plastered walls may be painted with oil or enamel paints as though they were wood, remembering that the priming coat will have almost all of its oil absorbed by the plaster. New plastered walls do...
-Outside Work
Exterior paints are more elastic, as they need to be far more lasting, than those used on interiors, since the effect of exposure to the sun and rain, destroys paint more than almost anything else doe...
-Repainting
If the old paint has been on a long time, it is liable to be permeated by minute cracks, which admit moisture to the surface of the wood and loosen the paint. If now we paint over this, the new paint,...
-Roof Painting
Roof paints should contain a larger proportion of oil to pigment than other paints, and less dryer (or none at all). Many think that the addition of ten to twenty per cent of fish oil to a paint for r...
-Painting Structural Metal
Steel is a more perishable material than wood, and more difficult to paint. Without regular expenditure for maintenance, wooden bridges last longer than steel ones; there are wooden roof beams a thous...
-Varnish
As varnish is a liquid made to be applied to a surface in a thin film, which, on exposure to the air, hardens into a protective coating that is usually glossy and almost transparent. There are two pri...
-Varnishing
The wood should be dry. For this reason it is better, if necessary to clean it, to avoid washing as much as possible, using sandpaper instead, which will also make it smooth. Of course the carpenter i...
-Shellac
Interiors are sometimes finished with shellac. This varnish is not used on exterior work, but it is a good varnish for interiors. All varnishes containing oil darken the color of wood; but white shell...
-Exterior Varnishing
Varnishes dry much more rapidly out of doors than within, so that it is practicable to use more elastic and durable materials. The conditions, in fact, are so severe that the best are not good enough....
-Enamel Paints
Varnishes are all more or less brownish yellow or yellowish brown. Therefore a coat of varnish applied over a paint obscures and changes its color to some extent. To overcome this as much as possible,...
-A New Varnish Finish
A method of finishing open-grained interior woodwork, which has been practiced for a few years, consists in first staining the wood with a water-stain - dyeing it, usually - and then, when it is dry, ...
-Floor Finishing
The primary trouble with floors is that people walk on them. If they did not, there would be no trouble at all. Four coats of varnish, or even paint, having an aggregate thickness of less than one one...
-Aluminum And Bronze Paints
Radiators and pipes are often painted with aluminum or bronze paints. These consist of metallic powders, in fine flakes, mixed with some varnish - usually with a pyroxylin varnish, which is a thin sol...
-Glazing
House painters are usually expected to understand the art of setting window-glass; it is not difficult to learn. Glass is classified as sheet or cylinder glass and plate glass. Sheet glass is made, at...
-Practical Electric Wiring Test Questions
Numerous illustrative examples are worked out in detail in the foregoing sections of this Cyclopedia - in order to show the application of the various methods and principles. Accompanying these are ex...
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Plastering
1. What is the difference between raw and boiled oil? When is one preferable to the other? 2. What would you consider a good brush outfit for painting and varnishing the interior woodwork and exterio...
-Foreword Vol10
TYPE OF MODERN AMERICAN BATH ROOM WITH LATEST APPROVED FITTINGS. PRINCIPLE OF HOT WATER HEATING ILLUSTRATED BY TRANSVERSE SECTIONAL VIEW SHOWING BOILER, RADIATOR AND EXPANSION TANK. America...
-Heating And Ventilation. Part I. Systems Of Warming
Any system of warming must include, first, the combustion of fuel which may take place in a fireplace, stove, steam or hot-water boiler; second, a system of transmission, by means of which the heat ma...
-Furnaces
Next in cost of installation and simplicity of operation is the hot-air furnace. In this method, the air is drawn over heated surfaces and then transmitted through pipes, while at a high temperature, ...
-Direct Steam Heating
Direct steam heating is used in all classes of buildings, both by itself and in combination with other systems. The first cost of installation is greater than for furnace heating but the amount of fue...
-Indirect Steam
This system of heating combines the advantages of both the furnace and direct steam but is more expensive to install. The amount of fuel required is about the same as in the case of furnace heating. I...
-Direct Hot Water
This system is similar in construction to one for direct steam, except that hot water flows through the pipes and radiators instead of steam. It is largely used for the warming of dwelling houses to w...
-Indirect Hot Water
This is used under the same conditions as indirect steam, and the heaters used are similar to those already described. Special attention is given to the form of the sections in order that there may be...
-Forced Blast
This method of heating, in different forms, is used for the warming of factories, schools, churches, theatres, halls or any large building where good ventilation is desired. The air for warming is dra...
-Electricity
Unless electricity is produced at a very low cost, its use for heating residences or large buildings is not practicable. It has however quite a field of usefulness in the heating of small offices, bat...
-Principles Of Ventilation
Closely connected with the subject of heating is the problem of maintaining air of a certain standard of purity in the various buildings occupied. The introduction of pure air can only be done proper...
-Composition Of The Atmosphere
It has already been stated elsewhere in this work that atmospheric air is not a simple substance but a mechanical mixture. Oxygen and nitrogen, the principal constituents, are present in very nearly t...
-Nitrogen
The principal bulk of the atmosphere is nitrogen, which exists uniformly diffused with oxygen and carbonic acid gas. This element is practically inert in all processes of combustion or respiration. It...
-Analysis Of Air
The amount of carbonic acid present in the air may be readily determined, with sufficient accuracy for practical purposes, in the following manner: Six clean, dry and tightly corked bottles, containi...
-Air Required For Ventilation
The amount of air required to maintain the standard of purity can be very easily determined provided, we know the amount of carbonic acid given off in the process of respiration. It has been found by ...
-Force For Moving Air
Air is moved for ventilating purposes in two ways; first, by expansion due to heating; and second .30 by mechanical means. The effect of heat on the air is to increase its volume and therefore lessen...
-Measurements Of Velocity
The velocity of air in ventilating ducts and flues is measured directly by an instrument called an anemometer. A common form of this instrument is shown in Fig. 24. It consists of a series of flat van...
-Air Distribution
The location of the air inlet to a room depends upon the size of the room and the purpose for which it is used. In the case of living rooms in dwelling houses, the registers are placed either in the f...
-Heat Loss From Buildings
A British Thermal Unit, or B. T. U., has been defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree F. This measure of heat enters into many of the calculati...
-Heat Loss From Buildings. Continued
Wall 5/6 X 19 = 15.8 Glass 1/6 X 85 = 14.1/ 29.9 Increasing this by 16% for total exposure and 10% for loss through ceilings we have 29.9 X 1.16 X 1.10 = 38.1. The loss through floors is considere...
-Furnace Heating. Types Of Furnaces
Furnaces may be divided into two general types known as direct and indirect draft. Fig. 28 shows a common form of direct draft furnace with a brick setting; the better class have a radiator, generally...
-Grates
No part of a furnace is of more importance than the grates. The plain grate rotating about a center pin was for a long time the one most commonly used. These grates were usually provided with a clinke...
-The Fire Pot
Fire pots are generally made of cast iron or of steel plate lined with fire brick. The depth ranges from about Fig. 30. 12 to 18 inches. In cast iron furnaces of the better class the fire pot is ...
-Combustion Chamber
The body of the furnace above the fire pot, commonly called the dome or feed section, provides a combustion chamber. This chamber should be of sufficient size to permit the gases to become thoroughly ...
-Radiator
The radiator, so called, with which all furnaces of the better class are provided, acts as a sort of reservoir in which the gases are kept in contact with the air passing over the furnace until they h...
-Heating Surface
The different heating surfaces may be described as follows: Fire pot surface; surfaces acted upon by direct rays of heat from the fire, such as the dome or combustion chamber; gas or smoke heated surf...
-Heating Capacity
Having determined the heat loss from a building by the methods given, it is a simple matter to compute the size of grate necessary to burn a sufficient quantity of coal to furnish the amount of heat r...
-Location Of Furnace
A furnace should be so placed that the warm-air pipes will be of nearly the same length. The air travels most readily through pipes leading toward the sheltered side of the house and to the upper room...
-Smoke Pipes
Furnace smoke pipes range in size from about 6 inches in the smaller sizes to 8 or 9 inches in the larger ones. They are generally made of galvanized iron of No. 24 gauge or heavier. The pipe should b...
-Chimney Flues
Chimney flues if built of brick should have walls 8 inches in thickness, unless terra cotta linings are used, when only 4 inches of brick work is required. Except in small houses where an 8 X 8 flue m...
-Cold-Air Box
The cold-air box should be large enough to supply a volume of air sufficient to fill all the hot-air pipes at the same time. If the supply is too small, the distribution is sure to be unequal and the ...
-Return Duct
In some cases it is desirable to return air to the furnace from the rooms above, to be reheated. Ducts for this purpose are common in places where the winter temperature is frequently below zero. Retu...
-Warm-Air Pipes
The required size of the warm-air pipe to any given room depends upon the heat loss from the room and the volume of warm air required to offset this loss. Each cubic foot of air warmed from zero to 14...
-Warm-Air Pipes. Continued
Fig. 34. The smoke pipe damper should be opened only enough to carry off the gas or smoke and to give the necessary draft. The openings in the feed door act as a check on the fire and should be ke...
-Steam Boilers. Types
The boilers used for heating are the same as have already been described for power work. In addition there is the cast-iron sectional boiler, which is almost exclusively used for dwelling houses. ...
-Sectional Boilers
Fig. 35 shows a common form of cast-iron boiler. It is made up of slabs or sections, each one of which is connected by nipples with headers at the sides and top. The top header acts as a steam drum an...
-Tubular Boilers
Tubular boilers are largely used for heating purposes, and are adapted to all classes of buildings except dwelling houses and the special cases mentioned for which sectional boilers are preferable. Th...
-Horse Power For Ventilation
We already know that one B. T. U. will raise the temperature of 1 cubic foot of air 55 degrees, or it will raise 100 cubic feet 1/100 of 55 or 55/100 of 1 degree, therefore to raise 100 cubic feet 1 d...
-Direct Steam Heating. Types Of Radiating Surface
The radiation used in direct steam heating is made up of cast iron radiators of various forms, pipe radiators and circulation coils. Cast Iron Radiators The general form of cast iron sectional radia...
-Pipe Radiators
This type of radiator (see Fig. 3) is made up of wrought iron pipes screwed into a cast iron base. The pipes are either connected in pairs at the top by return bends or each separate tube has a thin m...
-Circulation Coils
These are usually made up of 1 or 1 1/4 inch wrought iron pipe, and may be hung on the walls of a room by means of hook plates or suspended overhead on hangers and rolls. Fig. 39 shows a common form ...
-Efficiency Of Radiators
The efficiency of a radiator, that is, the B. T. U. which it gives off per square foot of surface per hour, depends upon the difference in temperature between the steam in the radiator and the surroun...
-Systems Of Piping
There are three distinct systems of piping, known as the two-pipe system, the one-pipe relief system, and the one-pipe circuit system, with various modifications of each. Fig. 43 shows the arra...
-Pipe Connections
Fig.. 49, 50 and 51 show the common methods of making the connections between the supply pipes and the radiators. Fig. 49 shows a two-pipe connection with a riser; the return is carried down to the ma...
-Expansion Of Pipes
Cold steam pipes expand approximately 1 inch in each 100 feet in length when low pressure steam is turned into them, so that in laying out a system of piping we must arrange it in such a manner that t...
-Pipe Sizes
The proportioning of the steam pipes in a heating plant is of the greatest importance, and should be carefully worked out by methods which experience has proved to be correct. ROCOCO ORNAMENTAL TH...
-Pipe Sizes. Continued
As most direct heating systems, and especially those in schoolhouses, are made up of both radiators and circulation coils, an efficiency of 300 B. T. U. has been taken for direct radiation of whatever...
-Return Pipes
The size of return pipes is usually a matter of custom and judgment rather than computation. It is a common rule among steam fitters to make the returns one size smaller than the corresponding steam p...
-Boiler Connections
The steam main should be connected to the rear nozzle, if a tubular boiler is used, as the boiling of the water is less violent at this point and dryer steam will be obtained. The shut-off valve shoul...
-Blow-Off Tank
Where the blow-off pipe connects with a sewer some means must be provided for cooling the water or the expansion and contraction caused by the hot water flowing through the drain pipes will start the ...
-Heating And Ventilation. Part II. Indirect Steam Heating. Types Of Heaters
Various forms of indirect radiators have been shown in Fig.. 8, 9, 14 and 15 of Part I. A hot-water radiator may be used for steam but a steam radiator cannot always be used for hot water as it must b...
-Stacks And Casings
It has already been stated that a group of sections connected together is called a stack, and examples of these with their casings are shown in Fig.. 6 and 7 of Part I. The casings are usually made of...
-Dampers
The general arrangement of a galvanized iron casing and mixing damper is shown in Fig. 7. The cold-air duct is brought along the basement ceiling from the inlet window and connects with the cold-air c...
-Size Of Heaters
The efficiency of an indirect heater depends upon its form, the difference in temperature between the steam and the surrounding air, and the velocity with which the air passes over the heater. Under o...
-Warm-Air Flues
The required size of the warm-air flue between the heater and the register, depends first upon the difference in temperature between the air in the flue and that of the room, and second, upon the heig...
-Cold-Air Ducts
The cold-air ducts supplying heaters should be planned in a similar manner to that described for furnace heating. The air inlet should be on the north or west side of the building, but this of course ...
-Vent Flues
In dwelling houses vent flues are often omitted and the frequent opening of doors and leakage are depended upon to carry away the impure air. A well designed system of warming should provide some mean...
-Registers
Registers are made of cast iron and bronze, in a great variety of sizes and patterns. The universal finish for cast iron is black Japan; they are also finished in colors and electroplated with coppe...
-Direct-Indirect Heating
The general form of a direct-indirect radiator has been shown in Fig.. 10 and 11 of Part I. Another form where the air is admitted to the radiator through the wall instead of the floor is shown in Fig...
-Care And Management Of Steam Heating Boilers
Special directions are usually supplied by the maker for each kind of boiler, or for those which are to be managed in any peculiar way. The following general directions apply to all makes, and may be ...
-Hot Water Heater Types
Hot water heaters differ from steam boilers principally in the omission of the reservoir or space for steam above the heating surface. The steam boiler might answer as a heater for hot water, but the ...
-Direct Hot Water Heating
A hot water system is similar in construction and operation to one designed for steam, except the hot water flows through the pipes, giving up its heat by conduction to the coils and radiators, which ...
-System Of Piping
A system of hot water heating should produce a perfect circulation of water from the heater to the radiating surface, and thence back to the heater through the returns. The system of piping usually em...
-Expansion Tank
Every system for hot water heating should be connected with an expansion tank placed at a point somewhat above the highest radiator. The tank must in every case be connected to a line of piping which ...
-Overhead Distribution
This system of piping is shown in Fig. 35. A single riser is carried directly to the expansion tank, from which branches are taken to supply the various drops to which the radiators are connected. An ...
-Boiler And Piping Combination Systems
Sometimes the boiler and piping are arranged for either steam or hot water, since the demand for a higher or lower temperature of the radiators might change. The object of this arrangement is to secu...
-Valves And Fittings
Gate valves should always be used in connection with hot water piping, although angle valves may be used at the radiators. There are several patterns of radiator valves made especially for hot water w...
-Valves And Fittings. Continued
We get the average elevation of the system by multiplying the square feet of radiation on each floor by the elevation above the heater, than adding these products together and dividing the same by the...
-Indirect Hot Water Heating. Types Of Heaters
The heaters for indirect hot water heating are of the same general form as those used for steam. The heaters shown in Fig.. 9, 14 and 15 of Part I, are common patterns. The drum pin, Fig. 14, is an ...
-Flues And Casings
For cleanliness, as well as for obtaining the best results, indirect stacks should be hung at one side of the register or flue receiving the warm air, and the cold-air duct should enter beneath the he...
-Care And Management Of Hot Water Heaters
The directions given for the care of steam heating boilers apply in a general way to hot water heaters as to the methods of caring for the fires and for cleaning and filling the heater. Only the speci...
-Exhaust Steam Heating
Steam after being used in an engine contains the greater part of its heat, and if not condensed or used for other purposes it can usually be employed for heating without affecting to any great extent ...
-Reducing Valves
The action of pressure reducing valves has been taken up quite fully in Boiler Accessories, and need not be repeated here. When the reduction in pressure is large, as in the case of a combined power...
-Grease Extractor
As already stated, when exhaust steam is used for heating purposes, it must first be passed through some form of separator for removing the oil. This is usually effected by introducing a series of baf...
-Back Pressure Valve
This is a form of relief valve which is placed in the outboard exhaust pipe to prevent the pressure in the heating system from rising above a given point. Its office is the reverse of the reducing val...
-Exhaust Head
This is a form of separator placed at the top of an outboard exhaust pipe to prevent the water carried up in the steam from falling upon the roofs of buildings or in the street below. Fig. 58 is known...
-Automatic Return Pumps
In exhaust heating plants the condensation is returned to the boilers by means of some form of return pump. A combined pump and receiver of the form illustrated in Fig. 59 is generally used. This cons...
-Return Traps
The principle of the return trap has been described in Boiler Accessories but its practical form and application will be taken up here. The type shown in Fig. 62 has all of its working parts outside...
-Damper Regulators
Every heating and every power plant should be provided with automatic means for closing the dampers when the steam pressure reaches a certain point, and for opening them again when the pressure drops....
-Low Pressure Or Vacuum Systems
In the systems of steam heating which have been described up to this point the pressure carried has always been above that of the atmosphere, and the action of gravity has been depended upon to carry ...
-Webster Vacuum System
This consists primarily of an automatic outlet valve on each coil and radiator connected with some form of suction apparatus such as a pump or ejector. The valve used is shown in section in Fig. 1 and...
-Paul Vacuum System
In this system the suction is connected with the air valves instead of the returns and the vacuum is produced by means of a steam ejector instead of a pump. The returns are carried back to a receiving...
-Exhaust Vacuum Method
This consists in drawing the air out of a building and providing for the heat thus carried away by placing steam coils under windows or in other positions where the inward leakage is supposed to be th...
-Plenum Method
In this case the air is forced into the building, and its quality, temperature and point of admission are completely under control. All spaces are filled with air under a slight pressure and the leaka...
-Form Of Heating Surface
A common form of heater for forced blast heating is shown in Fig. 16, Part I. This consists of sectional cast-iron bases with loops of wrought-iron pipe connected as shown. The steam enters the upper ...
-Efficiency Of Heaters
The efficiency of the heaters used in connection with forced blast varies greatly, depending upon the temperature of the entering air, its velocity between the pipes, the temperature to which it is ra...
-Efficiency Of Heaters. Continued
Example. - An audience hall is to be provided with 400,000 cubic feet of air per hour. The heat loss through walls, etc., is 250,000 B.T.U. per hour in zero weather. What will be the size of heater, a...
-Fans And Blowers
The term fan is commonly applied to any form of apparatus for moving air in which revolving blades or propellers are used, while the word blower is used only in those cases where the wheel or propelle...
-Fan Capacity
The volume of air which a given fan will deliver depends upon the speed at which it is run and the friction or resistance through the heater and air ways. The pressure referred to in connection with a...
-Fan Engines
A simple, quiet running engine is desirable for use in connection with a fan or blower. They may be either horizontal or vertical and for schoolhouse and similar work should be provided with large cyl...
-Motors
Electric motors are especially adapted for use in connection with fans. They are easily controlled by a switch and starring box or regulator. The motor may be directly connected to the fan shaft or it...
-Area Of Ducts And Flues
With the blower type of fan the size of the main ducts may be based on a velocity of 1200 to 1500 feet per minute, the branches on a velocity of 1000 to 1200 feet per minute, and as low as 600 to 800 ...
-Factory Heating
The application of forced blast for the warming of factories and shops is shown in Fig.. 20 and 21. The proportional heating surface in this case is generally expressed in the number of cubic feet in ...
-Double Duct System
The varying exposures of the rooms of a school or other building similarly occupied require that more heat shall be supplied to some than to others. Rooms that are on the south side of the building an...
-Exhaust Ventilation
When air is to be moved against a very slight resistance, as in the case of exhaust ventilation, the disc or propeller type of wheel may be used. This is shown in different forms in Fig.. 24, 25 and 2...
-Electric Heating
Unless electricity is produced at a very low cost, it is not commercially practicable for heating residences or large buildings. The electric heater, however, has quite a wide field of application in ...
-Electric Heat And Energy
The commercial unit for electricity is one watt for one hour, and is equal to 3.41 B. T. U. Electricity is usually sold on the basis of 1,000 watt hours (called Kilowatt-hours), which is equivalent to...
-Construction Of Electric Heaters
Heat is obtained from the electric current by placing a greater or less resistance in its path. Various forms of heaters have been employed. Some of the simplest consist merely of coils or loops of ir...
-Connections For Electric Heaters
The method of wiring for electric heaters is essentially the same as for lights which require the same amount of current. A constant electro-motive force or voltage is maintained in the main wire lead...
-Cost Of Electric Heating
The expense of electric heating must in every case be great, unless the electricity can be supplied at an exceedingly low cost. Estimated on the basis of present practice, the average transformation i...
-Temperature Regulators
The principal systems of automatic temperature control now in use consist of three essential features: First, an air compressor, reservoir and distributing pipes; second, thermostats, which are placed...
-Various Classes Of Buildings
The different methods used in heating and ventilation, together with the manner of computing the various proportions of the apparatus, having been taken up, the application of these systems to the dif...
-School Buildings
For school buildings of small size, the furnace system is simple, convenient and generally effective. Its use is confined as a general rule to buildings having not more than eight rooms. For large one...
-Churches
Churches may be warmed by furnaces, indirect steam, or by means of a fan. For small buildings the furnace is more commonly used. This apparatus is the simplest of all and is comparatively inexpensive....
-Halls
The treatment of a large audience hall is similar to that of a church, and is usually warmed in one of the three ways already described. Where a fan is used the air is commonly delivered through wall ...
-Theaters
In designing heating and ventilating systems for theaters, a wide experience and the greatest care are necessary to secure the best results. A theater consists of three parts: the body of the house, o...
-Office Buildings
This class of buildings may be satisfactorily warmed by direct steam, hot water, or where ventilation is desired by the fan system. Probably direct steam is used more frequently than any other system ...
-Apartment Houses
These are warmed by furnaces, direct steam and hot water. Furnaces are more often used in the smaller houses, as they are cheaper to install, and require a less skilful attendant to operate them. Stea...
-Steam Fitting
In order to design a system intelligently the engineer should have some knowledge of the methods of actual construction, the tools used, etc. It is customary where a piece of work is to be done to sen...
-Bath Tubs
There are many varieties of bath tubs in use at the present time, ranging from the wooden box lined with zinc or copper which was in common use a number of years ago and is still to be found in the ol...
-Water Closets
There is a great variety of water closets from which to choose, many operating upon the same principle but varying slightly in form and finish. The best are made of porcelain, the bowl and trap being ...
-Urinals
A common form of urinal is shown in Fig. 13. The partitions and slab at the back are either of slate or marble and the bowl of porcelain. They may be flushed like a closet. Fig. 14 shows a section thr...
-Lavatories
Bowls and lavatories can be had in almost any form. Fig. 18 shows a simple corner lavatory, made of porcelain and provided with hot and cold water faucets. It has an overflow, shown by the small openi...
-Sinks
Sinks are made of plain wood, and of wood lined with sheet metal, such as copper, zinc or galvanized iron. They are also made of sheet steel, cast iron, either plain, galvanized or enameled, and of so...
-Traps
A trap is a loop or water seal placed in a pipe to prevent the gases from the drain or sewer from passing up through the waste pipes of the fixtures into the rooms. A common form made up of cast iron ...
-Faucets
There are many different forms of faucets in use. The most common is the compression cock shown in Fig. 42. This has a removable leather or asbestos seat which requires renewing from time to time as i...
-Soil And Waste Pipes. Cast-Iron Pipe
There are many different forms of soil pipes and fittings, and one can best acquaint himself with these by looking over the catalogues of different manufacturers. Fig.. 47 and 48 show two lengths of s...
-Pipe Joints
There are two common methods of making joints in lead pipe, known as the cup joint and the wipe joint. The first is suitable only on small pipes or very light pressures. This is made by flanging t...
-Tile Pipes
Nothing but metal piping should be used inside of a building, but in solid earth, starting from a point about 10 feet away from the cellar wall, we may use salt-glazed, vitrified, or terra cotta pipe ...
-Cesspools
It is often desired to install a system of plumbing in a building in the country or in a village where there is no system of sewerage with which to connect. In this case it becomes necessary to constr...
-Traps And Vents. Traps
The best method of connecting traps, and their actual value under all conditions, are matters upon which there is much difference of opinion. Cities also vary in their requirements to a greater or les...
-Siphonage
This can best be illustrated by a few simple diagrams showing the principles involved. In Fig. 65 is shown a U tube with legs of equal length and filled with water. If we invert the tube, as shown in ...
-Back Venting
This consists in connecting a vent pipe at or near the highest part of the trap, as shown in Fig. 71. The action of this arrangement is evident; in place of the waste pipe receiving the air necessary ...
-Local Vents
A local vent is a pipe connected directly with a closet or urinal for carrying off any odor when in use. It has no connection with the soil pipe, unless the trap seal becomes broken, and is not provid...
-Main Or Soil Pipe Vent
It is customary to vent the main soil pipe by carrying it through the roof of the building, and leaving the end open. This is shown in Fig. 74. On gravel roofs which drain toward the center, the soil ...
-Fresh Air Inlets
The fresh air inlet shown just above the running trap Fig. 74 is to cause a circulation of air through the soil pipe, as shown by the arrows. The connection should be made just inside of the trap, so ...
-Disposal Of Sewage
In cities and towns having a system of sewers, or where there is a large stream of running water near by, the matter is a simple one. In the first case, the house drain is merely extended to the sewer...
-Pipe Connections. The Bath Room
There are different methods of connecting up the fixtures in a bath room, depending upon the general arrangement, type, the kind of trap used, etc. Fig. 75 shows a set of fixtures connected up with ve...
-Soil And Waste Pipes
The various fixtures have been taken up, together with the different kinds of traps which are used in connection with them, and also the general methods of making the various connections for waste and...
-Plumbing For Various Buildings. Dwelling Houses
The bathroom fixtures, laundry tubs and kitchen sink, with the possible addition of a slop sink, make up the usual fixtures to be provided for in the ordinary dwelling house. In houses of larger size ...
-Plumbing Testing And Inspection
All plumbing work of any importance should be given two tests; the first, called the roughing test, applies only to the soil, waste and vent pipes, and is made before the fixtures are connected. The...
-Sewerage And Sewage Purification
An abundant supply of pure water is a necessity in every town and city; and such a supply having been secured brings up the question of its disposal after being used. This is plainly the reverse of it...
-Sewer Design And Construction
The first step is to lay out the pipe or conduit system. For this the topographical map already mentioned will be found useful. This, however, should be supplemented by a profile of all the streets in...
-Sewer Design And Construction. Continued
Another difference is the provision for storm overflows, by means of which the main sewers when overcharged in times of heavy rainfall may empty a part of their contents into a nearby stream. At such ...
-Broad Irrigation Or Sewage Farming
Where sewage is applied to the surface of the ground upon which crops are raised the process is called sewage farming. This varies but little from ordinary irrigation where clean water is used inste...
-Intermittent Filtration
This method and the broad irrigation already described are the only purification processes in use on a large scale which can remove practically all. the organic matter from sewage without being supple...
-Hydraulics Of Plumbing
Although the principles of Hydraulics and Hydrostatics are discussed in Mechanics, it will be well to review them briefly, showing their application to the various problems under the head of Water ...
-Hydraulics Of Plumbing. Continued
Table III gives the various dimensions of wrought-iron pipe. In using pipe of this kind, it is well to allow something in size for possible choking by rust or sediment. While galvanized pipe does not ...
-Pumps
The principle upon which the pump operates has already been taken up in the Instruction Paper, Mechanics. The more common forms are known as the lift pump, the suction pump and a combination of ...
-The Hydraulic Ram
This is a device for automatically raising water from a lower to a higher level, the only requirements within certain limits being that the ram shall be placed at a given distance from the spring or s...
-Cisterns And Tanks
Water cisterns and tanks are made of various materials and in different shapes and sizes, according to the special uses for which they are required. A durable and satisfactory tank may be made of heav...
-Cold-Water Supply. Systems
There are two general methods of supplying a building with water, one known as the direct supply system, and the other as the indirect or tank system. In the direct system each fixture is conne...
-Tank Overflow Pipe
In order to prevent any possibility of overflow, every house tank should be supplied with an overflow pipe of sufficient size to carry off easily the greatest quantity of water that may be discharged ...
-Service Pipe Connections
Fig. 8 shows the usual method of connecting the service pipe with the street main. The service cock is connected directly with the main, and should be carefully blocked, so that any pressure of earth ...
-Hot-Water Supply
All modern systems of plumbing include a hot-water supply to the various sinks, bowls, bathtubs and laundry-tubs throughout the house. Fig. 13 shows the usual arrangement of a kitchen boiler and wate...
-Double Water-Back Connections
It is often desirable to connect a boiler with two water-backs, one in the kitchen range and another in a laundry stove in the cellar for summer use. Fig. 15 shows the common method of making the conn...
-Double Boiler Connections
It quite frequently happens that the kitchen boiler does not have sufficient capacity for the entire house, and it is not desirable to use a larger boiler on account of the limited space in the kitche...
-Circulation Pipes
It is often desirable to produce a continuous circulation in the distributing pipes so that hot water may be drawn from the faucets at once, without waiting for the cooler water in the pipe between th...
-Ripe Connections
Brass or copper pipe with screwed fittings should always be used for making the connections between the boiler and water back. Where unions are used they should have ground joints without packing. Lea...
-Laundry Boilers
In laundries, hotels, etc., where a large amount of hot water is used, it is necessary to have a larger storage tank and a heater with more heating surface than can be obtained in the ordinary range w...
-Boilers With Steam Coils
In large buildings where steam is available, the water for domestic purposes is usually warmed by placing a steam coil of brass or copper pipe in the storage tank. This may be a trombone coil made up ...
-Service Pipe And Meter
The service pipe by which the gas is conveyed to a building is always put in by the gas company. The size of this pipe is governed by the number of burners to be supplied, but it should never in any c...
-Pipes. Distributing Pipes
The distributing pipes inside of a house are usually of wrought iron, except where exposed in rooms, or carried along walls lined with enameled brick, or tile, in which case they may be of polished ba...
-Fittings And Joints
The fittings used in gas piping are similar to those employed in steam work, such as couplings, elbows, tees, crosses, etc. (see Fig.. 25, 26, 27 and 28). Other fittings not so extensively used are th...
-Running Pipes And Risers
All large risers should be exposed, and it is desirable to keep all piping accessible as far as possible so that it may be easily reached for repairs. All horizontal pipes should be run with an even t...
-Testing Gas Pipes
As soon as the piping is completed, it should be tested by means of an air pump; a manometer or mercury gage is used to indicate the pressure. In the case of large buildings, it is better to divide th...
-Gas Fixtures. Burners
Illuminating gas is a complex mixture of gases, of which various chemical compounds of carbon and hydrogen form the principal light-giving properties. Gas always contains more or less impurities, such...
-Cocks
It is of greatest importance that the stopcocks at the fixtures should be perfectly tight. It is rare to find a house piped for gas where the pressure test could be successfully applied without first ...
-Brackets And Chandeliers
Poor illumination is frequently caused by ill-designed or poorly constructed brackets or chandeliers. Gas fixtures, almost without exception, are designed solely from an artistic standpoint, without r...
-Globes And Shades
Next to the burners, the shape of the globes or shades surrounding the flame affects the illuminating power of the light. In order to obtain the best results, the flow of air to the flame must be stea...
-Cooking And Heating By Gas
Cooking by gas as well as heating is now very common and there is a great variety of appliances for its use in this way. Cooking by gas is less expensive and less troublesome than by coal, oil or woo...
-Heating By Gas
Gas as a fuel has not been used to any great extent for the warming of whole buildings, its application being usually confined to the heating of single rooms. Unlike cooking by gas, a gas fire for hea...
-Hot-Water Heaters
The use of gas cooking ranges makes it necessary to provide separate means for heating water. This is accomplished in several ways. The range shown in Fig. 52 has a boiler attached which is provided w...
-Gas Meters
The meter should be placed in such a position that it is easily accessible and may be read without the use of an artificial light. It is connected into the system between the service pipe and main ris...
-Gas Machines
While the manufacture of gas for cities and towns is a matter beyond the scope of gas fitting, it may not be out of place to take up briefly the operation of one of the forms of gas machines which are...
-Review Questions. Practical Heating And Ventilation Test Questions
In the foregoing sections of this Cyclopedia numerous illustrative examples are worked out in detail in order to show the application of the various methods and principles. Accompanying these are exam...
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Heating And Ventilation. Part I. Continued
12. Describe briefly one form of grease extractor. 13. What is the office of a pressure reducing valve in an exhaust steam heating system? 14. Upon what principle does a pump governor operate? 15. ...
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Plumbing Part I
1. What causes a trap to siphon, and in what three ways may it be prevented? 2. What size of soil pipe should be used for an ordinary-sized dwelling, and what pitch should be given to the horizonta...









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