Pitch Of Roof

A term applied to the amount of slope. It is found by dividing the height by the span.

Plan

See Floor Plan.

Plancher Or Planceer

The soffit of a cornice or corona. See the box cornice of Plate 55.

Plaster Ground

See Ground.

Plate

The top, horizontal timber of a wall. The attic joist, roof rafters, etc., rest on and are secured to the plate.

Plinth

The block that forms the bottom member of a column base.

Plumb

Vertical; parallel to a plumb line.

Podium

The die or body of a continuous pedestal. See Plate 62.

Porch

A covered shelter on the outside of a building.

Priming

The first coat of paint or varnish, mixed and applied so as to fill the pores of the surface preparatory to receiving the subsequent coats.

Proscenium

The front part of a theatre stage including the arch over the stage.

Pulley Stile

The vertical sides of a double-hung window frame on which are fastened the pulleys for the sash weights. See Plate 49.

Purlins

Structural members spanning from truss to truss and supporting the rafters of a roof.

Quoins

Large cut stones at the corners of a masonry wall. They form an ornamental corner and also a stoppage for the stone or brick work of the wall proper.

Rail

The horizontal top member of a balustrade. Also the horizontal members of windows and doors. See Plates 49 and 52.

Raking

Inclined from the horizontal.

Random Work

Applied to stone work that is not laid up in regular order but just as the stones come to hand.

Rebate

A recessed angle to receive a window or door frame, etc. See Plate 51.

Regula

The plane block beneath the triglyph and taenia of the Doric Order. See Plate 66.

Relieving Arch

A masonry arch built over an opening to support the backing of a wall when the wall face is carried by a lintel.

Reredos

The screen behind an altar.

Return

The turning back of a moulding, belt-course, etc., into the wall on which it is located or around a corner of the building.

Reveal

The projection of a frame or moulding beyond the wall which carries it. Also the jamb of a window or door frame between the window or door and the face of the wall.

Ridge

The top edge of the roof where two slopes meet.

Rostrum

An elevated speaker's platform.

Rotunda

The circular space under a dome.

Roughcast

Stucco when thrown against the wall to form a rough finish. Sometimes applied to roughly troweled work.

Rubble

Roughly broken quarry stone.

Rubrication

The coloring of a background by paint, enamels, etc.

Ruling Pen

See page 10 and Plate 3.

Saddle

A small double-sloping roof to carry the water away from the back of chimneys, etc.

Salon

A large and magnificent room.

Scagliola

A plaster imitation of colored marble.

Scale

An instrument used for measurement. See page 9 and Plate 3. Scale in design is the feeling of size which is produced by the judicious use of familiar details such as steps, windows, etc.

Scamillus

The groove which separates the hypo-trachelium or necking of the Greek Doric column from the shaft. See Plate 64.

Scantling

A piece of framing timber about 2 by 4 inches in section.

Scarfing

A method of lap-jointing of timbers in such a way that the joint is no larger than the section of the timbers.

Scratch Coat

The first coat of plaster which is scratched or scored to form a good bond for the second coat.

Screeds

Strips of plaster about 8 inches wide and the depth of the first two coats, which are put on first and trued up carefully to serve as guides in bringing the plastered surfaces to true planes.

Scribing

To mark or fit one edge of a board, etc., to an irregular surface.

Shaft

That part of a column between the capital and the base. See Plates 62, 63, etc.

Sheathing

The rough boarding on the outside of a wall or roof over which is laid the finished siding or the shingles.

Shoring

Timbers braced against a wall to form a temporary support where it is necessary to remove the wall below.

Show Rafter

A short rafter, often ornamented, where it may be seen below the cornice. See Plate 57.

Sill

The stone or wood member across the bottom of a door or window opening on the outside of the building. Also the bottom timber on which a building frame rests. See Plate 46.

Site

The location of a building.

Skew-Back

The first stone of an arch, having a horizontal bottom and a sloping top face.

Skirting

See Base Board.

Sleepers

The timbers laid on a firm foundation to carry and secure the superstructure.

Slip Joint

A joint made so as to allow a certain amount of movement of the parts joined without splitting or otherwise injuring them.

Smoke Chamber

That part of the flue directly above the fireplace. See Plate 61.