Soffit

The underneath surface of a beam, lintel, arch, etc.

Soil Pipe

The branch pipe that connects the closet or urinal with the soil stack.

Soil Stack

The vertical pipe line that leads from the soil pipe to the house drain.

Span

The distance between supports of a joist, beam, etc.

Specifications

The written or printed description of materials, workmanship, etc., that accompany the working drawings of a building.

Standing Finish

The wood finish secured to the walls.

Stile

The vertical members of a built up part such as a door, window, panel, etc. See Plate 52.

Stool

The wood shelf across the bottom and inside of a window. See Plate 49.

String

The supporting timber at the end of stair steps. See Plate 59.

Stucco

Cement plaster for outside work.

Style (of architecture). The distinguishing characteristics as fixed by the Order used or by the type of roof, windows, doors, walls and other details in combination.

Stylobate

The stepped base of a Greek temple. See Plate 64.

Sump

A depression in a roof, etc., to receive the rain water and deliver it to the down-spout. See Plate 55.

Taenia

The flat division band between the architrave and the frieze of the Doric Order. See Plate 64.

Templet

A pattern for use in cutting irregular stones such as the voussoirs of an arch, etc.

Terrace

A raised bank of earth.

Terra Cotta

A burned clay of fine quality, much used for ornamental work on the exterior of buildings.

Thimble

The short horizontal pipe leading through a chimney wall into the flue.

Threshold

The stone, wood or metal piece directly under a door.

Throat

The opening from a fireplace into the smoke chamber. See Plate 61.

Tongue

A projecting bead cut on the edge of one board to fit into a corresponding groove on the edge of another piece.

Tracery

Ornamental curving bars across an opening. They usually occur in Gothic buildings and are cut from stone. See Plate 37.

Transom

The horizontal member which divides an opening into parts; see Plate 51. It is also applied to a small window built over a door.

Transom Bar

Same as the first use of Transom.

Trap

A water-seal in a sewage system to prevent sewer gas from entering the building.

Tread

The horizontal board or surface of a step.

Trellis

An ornamental lattice made up of wooden strips to support vines.

Triangle

One of the drawing instruments described on page 9 and Plate 3.

Triglyph

A grooved plate, ornamenting the frieze of the Doric Order. See Plates 64, 65, and 66.

Trim

The finishing frame around an opening.

Trimmer Arch

The supporting arch beneath a hearth. See Plate 61.

Truss

A framework made up of triangular units for supporting loads over long spans. See Plate 36.

T Square

A drawing instrument for ruling parallel horizontal lines. See page 9 and Plate 3.

Tympanum

The triangular portion of wall under the sloping cornice of a classic building.

Underpinning

A new part of a wall or pier, built under an existing part.

Valley

The gutter formed by the intersection of two roof slopes.

Valley Rafter

The rafter extending along under a valley.

Vault

An arched ceiling or roof.

Veneer

A thin covering of valuable material over a less expensive body.

Vent Pipes

Small ventilating pipes extending from each fixture of the plumbing system to the vent stack.

Vent Stack

The vertical pipe connecting with the vent pipes and extending through the roof. It carries off the gasses and prevents the water-seal from siphoning out of the traps.

Verge Boards

The boards suspended from the verge of a gable. They are sometimes highly ornamented.

Vestibule

A small entrance room.

Vista

A view down an avenue or a path between shrubbery, etc.

Volute

A feature of the Ionic capital. See Plates 67 and 68.

Voussoir

One of the sections or blocks of an arch.

Wainscot

An ornamental or protective covering of walls, often consisting of wood panels.

Wall Plate

See Plate 46.

Waste Pipe

The pipe connecting lavatories and sinks with the waste stack.

Waste Stack

The vertical pipe which conducts waste water from the waste pipes to the house drain.

Water Table

A projecting, sloping member around a building near the ground to throw the rain water away from the wall.

Weather Boarding

The finished horizontal boarding of an outside wall. See Plate 24.

Wing

A section of a building extending out from the main part.

Wreath

The curved portion of a hand rail as at a landing. See Plate 59.

Yoke

The horizontal top member of a window frame. See Plate 49.