Plates 6 to 18

The drawings which the architect first produces for his client are called preliminary sketches. They are the product of his preliminary study of the problem and serve as a basis for further study by both parties. The preliminary sketches consist of the principal plans accompanied by either the elevations or a perspective of the exterior. They sometimes include sections through the building to show parts of the interior. See Plate 2. These drawings are usually done in a sketchy manner but show clearly the general scheme.

They are made at a scale of 1/8, 1/16 or 1/32l inch equal to 1 foot and sometimes not to any scale at all, in which case only the proportions are watched.

The plan of the building is the first preliminary to be worked out. The walls are usually represented in this drawing simply by single lines, allowance being made of course for the wall thickness when rooms are dimensioned on the sketch. While developing the plan, the elevation should be kept in mind to bring about the desired result. The client usually furnishes the architect with a general idea of the style of elevation he wishes and sometimes with the general arrangement of the plan.

The elevations are sketched rather roughly at first until an approximate scheme has been developed. Windows are often indicated here just by dark spots of the desired proportions; cornices and mouldings are indicated by drawing the shadows which they cast, etc. See Plate 6. Most designers work the plan and elevations along together until a satisfactory result is attained.

After this stage is reached, a pictorial drawing of the exterior is sometimes made, usually in perspective. This is then rendered by casting the shadows and often by showing the natural colors of the material in the building and its surroundings. The picture is made because it is usually difficult for the client to understand a direct elevation, whereas the picture is easily legible. If these preliminary sketches are to be submitted in competition with the work of other architects, as is frequently the case with sketches of public buildings, the rendering becomes a very important part of the work and is often done by artists who make this their profession.

To go about the preparation of preliminary sketches intelligently, the designer must know the amount of money to be spent and must become acquainted with the needs and preferences of his client. For example, in case of a residence, this means a knowledge of the members of the family to be housed and, to an extent, the likes, dislikes and needs of each. Then the general manner of living, the number of servants, the amount of entertaining done, etc., will all have a bearing on the design. A house to suit this family must also be made to fit the site or location. This means that the designer must become familiar with the site and its surroundings. If the house is to be built on very uneven ground, a survey should first be made by a competent surveyor.

Due regard must be given to the orientation or facing of the various rooms of the house.

The living room is the principal room of the house and as such it should be given special consideration. Plan it with a south and west exposure whenever possible, but of course the view from the windows will have a bearing on this. The outlook should be pleasant and, if it is not, a shrubbery screen may be planted to hide the objectionable feature from sight. A generous fireplace seems indispensable in this room. Place it where the most people can gather round it, not in a corner or where there will be a cross-draft through the room.

The dining room should look to the south and over a garden, lawn or other pleasant feature if possible. It should get the morning sun and should be bright and cheerful.

Kitchen at ....................................... Scored by .....................................

TOTAL

CUT

SCORE

I

PLAN 35 POINTS.

1 Arrangement of space for equipment.....................................

15

Convenience of stove, table, sink, or other furniture.

2 Storage...............................................................

15

Storage pantry-size and convenience.

Serving pantry-size and convenience.

Refrigerator. Shelving and hooks adequate and convenient to sink. Stove. Table. Clock.

Distances-if any two (stove, table, sink, pantry) are farther apart than 12 feet, cut 1/2 point for each foot more than 12 feet.

3 Doors................................................................

5

If there are more than 4, cut one point for each.

Outside door direct to covered porch or entry.

If there is no covered porch, cut 1 point.

Door to dining-room-double swinging if direct.

Accessibility to front door.

Accessibility to upstairs.

Accessibility to cellar.

If rear stair goes up from kitchen, cut 3 points.

II

LIGHT AND VENTILATION 25 POINTS

Should be two exposures; if only one cut 5 points.

25

Glass area = 20% of floor area. Cut 1 point for each 1% under 20%.

Window in pantry-cut 2 points if there is none.

Satisfactory daylight at stove, sink, and table.

Score 3 points for each if good.

Transom over outside door, 1 point.

If window stools are less than 34" from floor cut 1 point.

Satisfactory artificial light at stove, sink, and table, 3 points each.

Ventilating hood or flue, 1 point.

III

FLOORS AND WALLS 10 POINTS

1 Floor-resilient and grease proof.........................................

4

Hardwood, monolith, or linoleum are O. K.

Cut for cracks, soft wood, carpet, etc.

2 Walls................................................................

4

Light in color, cheerful and sanitary.

Cut for violations of above requirements.

3 Woodwork............................................................

2

Cut 1 point for dust-catching mouldings and projections.

Cut 1 point for wood wainscot.

IV

EQUIPMENT 30 POINTS

1 Stove-adequate size and condition......................................

12

If oven is less than 10" from floor, cut 1 point per inch.

If there is no boiler, cut 2 points.

If there is no thermometer, cut 1 point.

2 Sink.................................................................

8

Enamel or porcelain are O. K.

Cut two points for uncomfortable height.

Cut for iron, tin, etc., 3 points.

Double drain-board; if single, cut 3 points.

If splash board is wood, cut two points.

3 Table................................................................

3

Size - Cut 1 point if smaller than 6 square feet.

Height - Cut 1 point if uncomfortable.

4 Refrigerator...........................................................

4

Size, material, condition.

5 Fireless cooker........................................................

2

6 Chair and stool........................................................

1

Total.................................................................

100

If no water in kitchen, cut 40 points. If no hot water in kitchen, cut 20 points. If kitchen is used as laundry, cut 15 points.

Remarks.....................................................................................

Suggestions for improvement..................................................................

PLATE 6.

Article IV Preliminary Sketches 8

The kitchen is the work shop of the house and must be very carefully studied to be successful. It is best placed at the northeast corner of the house. The many points which demand attention in this room are suggested in the accompanying Kitchen Score Card, which is used in the Drawing Department at The Ohio State University. When planning a kitchen, the result should be checked carefully with this reminder.

The bed rooms should be well lighted and ventilated. Have windows in two walls whenever possible, to afford a cross circulation of air. Generous clothes closets are very much in demand.

In all rooms careful attention must be given to the providing of space for the furniture. To aid in this, the following approximate furniture dimensions are given.

Tables are about 29 inches high and the top of a dining table is about 42 to 48 inches wide by varying lengths.

Chair seats are about 18 inches square and 18 inches from the floor.

Rocking chairs are about 20 inches deep by 24 inches wide.

The kitchen stove projects from the wall about 26 inches and is 36 or more inches in width.

A grand piano is 6 by 5 feet. An upright piano is 5 1/2 by 2 1/2 feet.

A lounge or davenport is about 30 inches by 6 to 7 feet.

Double beds are about 5 feet wide, three-quarter beds are about 4 1/2 feet wide and single beds 3 to 4 feet wide. Beds are about 6 feet 10 inches long.

Bureaus and chiffoniers extend about 18 inches from the wall and vary in width from 3 feet up.

For plumbing fixtures see Plate 19.

The preliminary sketch is decidedly the work of a designer and an original sketch can not be successfully produced without a knowledge of architectural composition and styles or an artistic sense of the fitness of things, both being necessary for the best results. The student, however, can at once learn how to make the necessary drawings and his ability as a designer will then be the result of constant study and development of his talents as he works along.

In developing a scheme it is always well, after a little thought, to get something down on paper and then to alter this until satisfied, rather than to attempt to think out the finished scheme in one's mind and then consider the first drawing made as being complete. The best results will be gained by putting down each step in the development as it is thought out. To facilitate this the designer makes use of transparent tracing paper. Thus sketch after sketch may be made one over the other for each alteration or addition, and in the end, a complete record of the development is preserved.

The current architectural magazines1 furnish many suggestions for plans and elevations of various classes of buildings which may be followed by the student in his practice sketches.

On Plate 76 is given a number of sketch plans and perspectives which may later be developed into working drawings by the student.

The Frontispiece is a preliminary sketch from the office of Howell and Thomas, Architects, of Cleveland, Ohio. It is in direct elevation and is a pencil sketch which has been lightly tinted with crayon, producing a pleasing effect. Notice that very few lines of the building have been drawn but rather the form of the parts is merely suggested in a sketchy manner by indicating shadows, etc. The surrounding trees, lawn and walks are sketched in perspective to give depth to the picture.

On Plate 6 are some of the sketches from which was developed the design of the Cochran residence. The working drawings of this house are shown on Plates 21 to 30. The photograph on Plate 6 shows the appearance of the completed house.

1 A list of these magazines will be found on page 149.