Plates 46 to 61
Architectural details are those drawings made at a larger scale than the plans and elevations to describe accurately the various methods of construction and the mouldings and ornamentation of the building.
The scale of details varies according to the necessity of the case, 3/4" = 1' - 0" being a good size for general detailing such as exterior elevations and wall sections while interior elevations are often made at a scale of 1/2" = 1' - 0". Where absolute accuracy is required, such as for the fine mouldings of a mantel, full-size details are necessary.
The smaller scale details are usually included in the general drawings while full-size details are furnished only to the mechanic who is to get out that part of the work.
The details of any building consist principally of the following drawings.
First - Vertical wall sections describing all horizontal mouldings or belt courses, the sill, wall thickness, method of framing floor systems into walls, windows, cornice, and roof at the cornice. The detailed plan or jamb sections are sometimes shown on this drawing.
Second - Details of the exterior elevations which could not be described adequately by the small scale elevations.
Fourth - Parts of the plan are detailed when necessary.
After the general drawings have been gotton out, the full-size details are completed, usually in the order in which the building is done. Thus the basement windows are almost always the first full-size details made for the better class of residence work, since these windows must be built and delivered before the basement wall can be completed. The interior trim, stair finish, etc., are full sized last for that is the last work to be put into the building.
There is a great variety of detail for each feature of a building, but it will be necessary for the student to study at this time only the standard methods of construction, and suggestions as to the drawing up of the principal details.
A careful study of the detail drawings of the Cochran residence, the Grace Methodist Church and the Cleveland office building, so that the student may understand the reason for each feature of the detail, will be of benefit to him in the production of similar drawings.
Stock sizes of material, particularly hardware, will often have a bearing on the design of a detail. Attention is called to this on some of the detail plates.
Basement Window In Frame Wall
BASEMENT WINDOW IN BRICK WALL
DOUBLE HUNG WINDOW IN FRAME WALL
In All Cut The Cheapest Work. The Yoke And Pulley Stiles Should Be Framed Into The Outside Casing As Here Shown. This Is Done To Prevent Them From Warping And Thereby Causing The Sash To Bind. The Inside Casino Being Nailed Or. Screwed To These Members Assists In Holding Them P1rmly In Place The Pendulum, Which Prevents The Sash Weights Prom 1nterfer[Ng. Is Often Omitted In Cheap Frames. This Member Is Swung Loosely Prom The Top Only And When Made Op Thin Wood Will Sometimes Warp. Because Of This A Stiff Copper Or Heavily Galvanized Iron Strip Is Better.
DOUBLE HUNG WINDOW IN BRICK WALL
The Details Of Casements Must Be Careeully Studied To Obtain Satisfactory Results For It Is Very Difficult To Make This Type Of Sash Weather-Tight. This Is Par; T1cularly True Of The In-Swinging Casements. The Details Given Are Typical And May Be Varied To Suit The Needs Of The Case .
When The Outside Woodwork Is To Be Painted And The Inside Is A Finished Hard Wood, The Detail Should Be Made With This In Mind. The Softer. Outside Wood Should Not Show On The Inside Of The Building And The More Expensive Hard Wood Should Not Be Used For. Heavy Parts Of The Frame. This Is Illustrated By The Detail At The Right And Is True Of All Frames.
CASEMENT WINDOW DETAILS
The Battened Door Is The Type Used For. Large Doors Of Factories Etc. It Is Built Up Of Diagonal Matched Boards A5 Indicated. The Ledged And The Ledged And Braced Door Are Used Where Appearances Are Not Important Such As In Cellars Etc. The Paneled Door Is Built Up Of Heavy Parts Called Stiles And Rails Into Which Are Framed The Thin Panels. Such Doors Are Solid As At The Lift Or Else The Stiles And Rails Are Built Of Strips Glued Up And A Thin Sheet Of The Finishing Wood Orveneer Is Glued Overthe Outside As Above.
DETAILS OF INSIDE DOORS
PLATE 53. DETAILS OF OUTSIDE DOORS
PLATE 55. GUTTERS AND CORNICES FOR FRAME WALLS
PLATE 56. CORNICE MOULDING FOR GABLE END
PLATE 57. GUTTERS AND CORNICES FOR MASONRY WALLS