Elevations

Before developing the plans very far the elevations should be blocked in and the plans and elevations carried along together to secure the best result. It is well to draw the elevations on transparent tracing paper as this facilitates the work. This paper may be laid directly over the plan and locations read through it.

An elevation should indicate everything on the outside of the building from the grade to the chimney caps and that portion of the basement wall which is out of sight in the ground should be shown by dotted lines as on Plates 24 to 27.

Plan Symbols For Electric Fixtures

PLATE 20. PLAN SYMBOLS FOR ELECTRIC FIXTURES.

First decide on the story heights or distances from floor to floor and mark them out on the sheet. Now draw the floor lines across the sheet as shown on the above mentioned plates. They should be inked to prevent their being erased when changes are made in the pencil drawing. Some draftsmen like to use red ink for this, as the floor levels are easily found among the other lines. If the elevation is to be symmetrical, draw the center line or lines next and ink them.

Plan Symbols For Plumbing Fixtures

PLATE 19. PLAN SYMBOLS FOR PLUMBING FIXTURES.

Now the grade line representing the surface of the ground is drawn at the desired distance from the first floor line. Sometimes both the natural and finished grades are shown, the latter by a solid line and the former by a dotted one. Both of these should then be plainly noted as on Plates 24 to 27.

A temporary vertical wall section should now be drawn at one side of the sheet extending from the footing up through the cornice. It should contain the vertical section of a typical window in each story, sections through the floors, and a typical cornice section. This need not be drawn in detail here but just complete enough to assist in drawing the elevation.

Next draw the center lines of windows and doors very lightly and draw in the windows and doors as desired. After this is done they may be placed on the plans.

Any other features, such as porches, hoods, bays, dormers, etc., should now be drawn on the elevations and plans.

If the stairway is next to an outside wall it is often shown by dotted lines on that elevation to which it is adjacent. This is of particular value where windows occur on the stair or landing as it gives a definite means of locating them vertically. See Plate 37.

On the elevation of a frame house the boards are indicated by fine lines and on a brick house the horizontal brick joints are sometimes similarly shown. This lining is usually shown on just enough of the elevation to make clear of what the wall is built. Stone joints are indicated in a like manner. When the drawing is inked the joints are often shown in diluted ink which differentiates them from the other ones as explained under the subject of Reproduction of Working Drawings.

Where ornament occurs on the elevation it is often omitted from the scale drawings and its location shown by merely its outline or by a note, see Plate 43, or else only a small portion is indicated and its continuation or repetition is noted.

When some exterior walls can not be described on the front, rear or side elevations (such as certain court walls), they must be drawn separately and given an explanatory title.

In all of this elevation drawing the perspective effect or actual appearance of the resulting structure must be kept in mind as this will often vary materially from the appearance of the projection drawing. See article on Perspective and Plate 9.

Scale Details

After the plans and elevations are well worked up the draftsman must make the scale details. These are detail plans, elevations and sections drawn at a scale of 1/2", 3/4", 1 1/2" or 3" = 1' - 0" according to the amount of definition to be shown. They are used for conditions where small scale drawings will not suffice and where full-size details are not necessary. See Plates 28 to 30 and 36 to 38.