Communal Life

The general arrangement of the cells in these habitations indicates that the inhabitants had a communal rather than a family life. Travelers speak of the morning chant and the proclamation made at dawn by the chief. The chant is supposed to be an act of worship, and the proclamation the assignment of the day's tasks of the different families living in the pueblo.

PRIMITIVE LOG HOUSE OF THE ARYANS Shows chimney which seems to have been lost for some years.

PRIMITIVE LOG HOUSE OF THE ARYANS Shows chimney which seems to have been lost for some years.

PUEBLO OF TAOS, NEW MEXICO.

PUEBLO OF TAOS, NEW MEXICO.

Cliff Dwellings

The second form of habitation which in general character much resembles the pueblo are the cliff dwellings. The cliff houses were built of rock or cliffs and were often reached with great difficulty. Their shape and size depended largely upon the form of the cliff. The walls are of stone cemented with clay, and they show much skill in construction.

While these later forms show much architectural skill and knowledge of the management of materials, they would seem very unsatisfactory dwellings to the modern man. The absence of light and heat, the stone floors and bare walls, with no provision for sanitation do not accord with the idea of what a modern house should offer.

House in a Rock.

House in a Rock.

Besides these typical American forms of dwellings, we will consider four others, viz. - The Swiss, Grecian, Roman and Japanese dwellings.

The lake dwellings of Switzerland are older than the pyramids of Egypt. They were built in the still waters of lakes, but far enough from the shore to be safe from disturbance. As life became safer, the lake dwellers came back to the land.

More Than Shelter

In the primitive dwellings which we have considered the one requirement which they have all met has been that of protection or defense. As civilization advanced and man learned the use of tools, domesticated animals, learned the arts of weaving and of working in wood and metal, his dwelling came to mean something more than a place of shelter. Moreover, the character of the country, the climate, the kind of building material at hand, all had a part in determining the kind of dwelling that was built in any locality.

Rio Mancas, Two Storied Cliff House and Enlarged Plan of Rooms.

Rio Mancas, Two-Storied Cliff House and Enlarged Plan of Rooms.

Greek Houses

Among the Greeks the energies of the people seem to have been given to the making of temples rather than private dwellings. Judging from the indications home and family life as we understand it were almost unknown to the ancient Greek. The dwellings were within walled cities; of one story with stone floors. The absence of any provision for family life is very evident. The two principal divisions are the courts for men and women. The seclusion and separation of the women is shown in the general plan. It is said that the Greek woman of the wealthy class was not expected to leave her home more than about once a year; that she never appeared at dinner with her husband if a guest were present.

LAKE DWELLINGS OP SWITZERLAND.

LAKE DWELLINGS OP SWITZERLAND.

PUEBLO OF TAOS. (After a Photograph).

PUEBLO OF TAOS. (After a Photograph).

RESTORATION OF INTERIOR OF A ROMAN HOUSE The Ornament on the Walls Painted in Vivid Reds.

RESTORATION OF INTERIOR OF A ROMAN HOUSE The Ornament on the Walls Painted in Vivid Reds. Browns, Blues and Yellows.

We see in the plan given the combination of the shop or small store with the dwelling. The entrance is guarded by the porter. The vestibule leads into the men's court about which are the bedrooms for the men. The anteroom separates the women's part from the men's, and about the women's court are various rooms in which the house work is done. There seems to have been no general room for both men and women. The house was sometimes two stories. In that case the women's apartments were in the second story.