We are indebted to the ruins of Pompeii for the knowledge we have of Roman houses. These houses were derived from the Greek house with its two courts. The plan shown is evidently the house of a wealthy man. We see here the combination of the shop and small house with the larger house. There is the family court and the public court. One has said that the Greek house was made for the use of men and women, the Roman house for public and private life. The house occupied a block. The outside was rented to tenants and used either as shop or house while the family dwelling centered about the inner court. The walls were of wood finished with plaster; the floors of stone. There were no windows, but there was a good water supply and drainage. The house was heated by braziers containing charcoal, and lighted by wicks in oil. The Roman loved display and publicity and much of his time was spent in the forum or the theater, The Roman woman enjoyed greater freedom than the Greek.
EXTERIOR OF A JAPANESE HOUSE.
The Japanese house is built of wood with tile roof and no cellar; its walls are made of sliding shutters so that it is possible to make doors anywhere. The size of the rooms is decided by the number of mats. These mats are made of straw, size 3 x 6 ft. There are no bedrooms needed in a Japanese house because any of the rooms can be transformed into a bedroom by putting thick comforters on the mats. This practice is much more cleanly than it sounds to an American because the Japanese houses are kept exceedingly clean and the shoes are removed on entering the house, so the dust of the street is not carried in.
FLOOR PLAN OF A JAPANESE HOUSE.
The rooms are used for different purposes. No chairs are used and no dining room tables. Charcoal is used for cooking. It is said that the kitchen utensils are kept under the floor. The wooden verandah is also inclosed by shutters.
The Swiss houses are made almost entirely of wood. The lower story is of masonry and the basement is sometimes used for stores and for the domestic animals. Timbers of the lower story project, forming corbel windows.
To summarize this section: We see that through the centuries there has been a progressive series of changes in human habitations. From the shelter afforded by a tree, the tent, the cave, and the log cabin of one room, the courts of the Greek and Roman houses, or the great hall of the castle, to the modern house of today is a long journey, marked at various times by the introduction of those elements which enter into the modern house. The thatched and stone roofs have been replaced by slate and wood. Here the window has been introduced; there the chimney. The ladder has been replaced by a beautiful staircase. Provision has been made for heat and light. The artist and architect have combined to make the modern house not only the place of shelter but the place of beauty as well.
Swiss House. Basement used for Cattle; Upper Stories for the Family.
SWISS HOUSE, SECOND FLOOR PLAN.