This section is from the book "The Principles And Practice Of Modern House-Construction", by G. Lister Sutcliffe. Also available from Amazon: How Your House Works: A Visual Guide to Understanding & Maintaining Your Home.
The uncertainty of the process, and the large proportion of the bath that come out of the kiln " all-buts","seconds", and "thirds" (although each has had the same amount of labour and care bestowed upon it as those which come out "bests"), sufficiently account for the high prices which are asked for fire-clay baths.
1 Formerly a 5 ft. 6 in. bath weighed about 7 cwt, to-day a bath of the same weighs only about &51/2 cwt.
Of marble baths there is not much need to speak at length. A solid bath hewn out of one piece of marble is a luxury suitable only for the mansion or the palace. Baths are also sometimes made of slabs of marble put together with bolts in the sameway as slate baths. In whichever way they are made, marble baths are subject to the same drawbacks with regard to temperature as the porcelain baths.
Figs. 257,258,259.- Three Bad Forms of Bath supplies and Waste.
Concrete baths lined with a sort of rough marble mosaic were introduced some years ago, but failed to commamd a profitable sale, and are not now in the market.
Wooden baths are used still in some parts of the country, but there is no special advantage in them, and, in point of price, they could not compete successfully with the cheaper forms of iron baths.
Wooden baths lined with sheet lead were much used, especially in Scotland, before the introduction of cast-iron baths, and though such baths allow the safe to he dispensed with in certain cases, they are not so cleanly as the enamelled cast-iron or fire-clay baths, nor do they compare well in price cither.
Fig. 260. -Combined Waste-and Overflow Amnmimnl for Bath:- A, Overflow.pipe, fitted with Bayonet -catch, so that it can be easily removed for cleansing; B, "Quick-waste" Valve with Weight c, and Chain D; E. Lead Trap; v. Waste-pipe ; G, Anti-siphonage Pipe (tan Trap; B, Lead Safe; I. Waste -pipe from Safe; J. Section showing the waste-valve open, and conducting the Water past the Oriflce of the Overflow-pipe.
Fig. 261. - Bath-overflow discharging on to the lead Safe.
The methods adopted for discharging the waste water from baths vary considerably. The most simple of all is a plug and washer with or without a chain.
Of the many bad forms in common use until recent times, three are here given as typical examples, viz., figs. 257, -58, and 259. It will be noticed that, though the three examples differ in details, they have one feature in common, viz., the water, both hot and cold, is admitted to the bath, and the waste water discharged, through one orifice and along one length of pipe common to all. Anything more uncleanly than this arrangement could not possibly have been devised. Some of the dirty water from the last use of the bath almost invariably remains in the horizontal length of pipe which is common to all three purposes, ami this is of necessity forced back into the bath by the inrush of fresh water. Though still sometimes to be seen, this class of fitting may be regarded as obsolete; but it is curious that its disuse, in the first instance, was not due to any sence of its unfitness from a sanitary point of view, bill on account of the waste of water which would be liable to occur undetected, if the waste were left open, and the supply-valves leaked. The waste pipe of a bath ought to be entirely independent of the supply-pipes and inlets.
Fig. 260 shows a combined waste-and-overflow arrangement. The waste-outlet is shut by means of a Hap, which is attached to a weighted handle. The Hap is raised by a chain attached to the waste-knob, and when the latter is released after being raised, the weighted handle falls back and shuts the valve When the waste-valve is closed, there is a free passage down the overflow-pipe. The vertical pipe is fitted with a bayonet-catch in order that it can be removed for cleansing, and the inside of the valve-box is lined with porcelain enamel. In this case the overflow discharges into the waste-pipe. An alternative arrangement is shown in Fig. 261, where the overflow-pipe discharges over the outlet-pipe from the lead safe. Another form of combined waste and overflow is shown in Fig. 262. In this arrangement, the overflow rises up the annular space between the standing waste-pipe and the pipe in which it ii inclosed, and so into the waste-pipe. Fig. 268 shows a somewhat similar arrangement, but in this case there is no inner pipe, and the overflow escapes through an orifice at the upper part of the standing waste. All the foregoing overflow and waste pipes' are outside the bath. Fig. 264 shows an arrangement of overflow inside the bath, the end of which is specially shaped to receive it.
Fig. 262 - Combined waste and Overflow outside Bathe.
Fig. 263 - Bath-waste with Ball Plug and seperate Overflow-pipe.