This section is from the book "The Principles And Practice Of Modern House-Construction", by G. Lister Sutcliffe. Also available from Amazon: How Your House Works: A Visual Guide to Understanding & Maintaining Your Home.
Section 21 of the Public Health Act, 1875, confers the right upon the owner or occupier of premises to have his drains connected to the sewers of the Council, on condition that he complies with the Council's regulations as to the mode of making the communication between the drain and the sewer, and subject to the control of any person who may be appointed by the Council to superintend the making of the connection. The succeeding section, No. 22, permits the use of sewers by the owner or occupier of any premises outside the district of the Couneil on such terms and conditions as may be agreed upon between the respective parties, or, in case of dispute, these terms may be settled by the magistrates or by arbitration. In many cases boundaries of districts are farmed by the fence running along the side of a road, or the centre of a road may be taken for the boundary; so that houses outside the l>oundary in such cases may be conected to the sewer belonging to the District on the other side of the boundary. Section 23 of the Act confers power upon the Local Authority to enforce the drainage of undrained houses, and to cause them to be connected to an sewer belonging to the Local Authority, which is not more than 100 feet from the site of Bach houses, but if no such means of drainage are available, then by emptying into a cesspool or such other place as the Local Authority direr- The Authority may require the drains to be of such materials and size, to be laid at such levels and to such falls as, on the report of its surveyor, may appear necessary. And by Section 25 it shall not be lawful in any Urban District to erect or rebuild any house, or to occupy the same, unless and until a sufficient drain has been constructed subject to the provisoes mentioned in the previous sections.
Fig. 397 - Method of Setting up Sight-rails.
In many districts that portion of the drain between the public sewer and the building-line, in highways reparable by the inhabitants at large, can only be constructed by the officials of the Councils, but where there is no rule to this effect, it is necessary tor the person who is to construct the works on behalf of the owner or occupier, to obtain, as required by Section 149 of the Public Health Act, permission to break open the street, and having obtained this he is then subject to compliance with all the conditions imposed in Sections 81, 82, and 83 of the Towns Improvement Clauses Act of 1847, which are incorporated also in the Public Health Act, and which have reference to the fencing, lighting, and guarding the work- and materials for the proper protection of the public.
It is also necessary to give notice of the intention to make a junction with the public sewer, as it is possible one may not have been left upon the sewer at the precise spot required. For the purpose of having this connection made in an efficient manner, it has to be done under the direct personal supervision of a responsible officer of the District Council, and the whole of the work from the junction to the building-line executed strictly in accordance with the Council's regulation. In those districts where the Public Health Amendment Act of 1890 has been adopted, the owner of the property may, if he so desires, under Section 18, agree with the Council upon terms to execute this work on his behalf, and so avoid the responsibilities and obligations imposed by the Council's regulations, and the sections of the Acts of Parliament referred to above. If the Council themselves do not undertake the work, then the person undertaking the work for the proprietor must make the connection to the sewer. If no junction-pipe has been inserted in the sewer, some approved means must be taken to make the connection.
If the Surveyor to the Local Authority will sanction it, a hole may be cut in the sewer-pipe for the insertion of a properly-curved and flanged connecting -collar, the spigot of which is of a depth equal to the thickness of the sewer-pipe, the flange being bedded in cement mortar upon the pipe. These collar- should have sockets in which to insert the first pipe of the branch-drain, as shown in Fig. 398.
To introduce an ordinary junction-pipe into an existing sewer i- an operation involving considerable trouble and expense, as several pipes may have to be removed and a considerable amount of excavation thus incurred To overcome this, Messrs. Doulton have introduced a patent junction - pipe, shown in Fig. 399, by the adoption of which one pipe only is removed from the sewer, and this can readily be replaced by that which receives the branch-drain. On removing the existing pipe, the portion a of the patent pipe is placed in position. This is provided at one end with an extended half-socket, which is entered beneath the spigot B of the existing sewn, and the spigot of the new pipe is then drawn back into the exposed socket of the sewer. The operation is completed by the insertion of the part c between a and B; this has two half-sockets at the upper side, by means of which a satisfactory joint can lie made with the pieces a and B. An access-opening is provided in the portion hearing the branch, and this permits of the several joints being finished from the inside; it can be ultimately closed by a stopper.
Fig. 398 - Section and Plan of Saddle - Junction for Branch-drain.
Fig. 399 - Doulton's Patent Junction - Pipe.