This section is from the book "The Principles And Practice Of Modern House-Construction", by G. Lister Sutcliffe. Also available from Amazon: How Your House Works: A Visual Guide to Understanding & Maintaining Your Home.
The recommendations of the Commissioners with respect to the apparatus themselves need not be described in detail. They include the removal of a pan-closet, a hopper-closet without Hushing rim, an old-fashioned valve-closet, and a wash-out closet, and the substitution of modem valve-closets, and wash-down closets with lead traps.
The old 44-inch seamed-lead soil-pipes must be entirely removed, on account of their position, foulness, lack of ventilation, etc. "The soil-pipe p from closet L is unventilated, and is perforated on the top of the short horizontal length next trap", this corrosion being caused "by the entire absence of ventilation. and the consequent non-removal of soil-gases, as ammonia, carbonic acid, sulphuretted hydrogen, etc.". In addition to the perforation just mentioned, a fracture had been caused by the repeated expansion and contraction of the lead, owing to the pipe being carried through the wine-cellar in the same casing as the hot-water pipe to the bath, and decay had also taken place in the portion passing through the wall, owing to contact with the lime. On account of the changes of position, the three water-closets J, K, and m can all be served by one soil-pipe. The Commissioners recommend that this be only 3 1/2 inches in diameter, and made of lead weighing 10 lbs. per foot. " Each length [presumably of 10 feet] must be provided with six cast-lead tacks, weighing about 7 lbs. each, soldered on the soil-pipe in pairs at equal distances throughout. The bottom of the pipe must be fitted with a stout brass thimble, soldered to same for connection with the iron branch to manhole." It is also said that the upper end of the pipe "should be carried up over the parapet to about 2 feet above the ridge", as shown in Fig. 695, which is copied from one in the report. This recommendation is of questionable value, as the two bends thus introduced will very greatly reduce the air-extracting power of the pipe; if there had been a skylight on the side of the roof nearest the pipe, there would have been a valid reason for carrying this above the ridge, but in any case the outlet near the ridge brings the foul air of the soil-pipe and drain nearer the central skylights and the louvred dormer inclosing the water-cisterns.
Fig. 694. - Branch joint in the "Eureka" Tin-line Lead pipe.
The anti-syphonage pipe recommended by the Commissioners is shown in Fig. 695. It is to be of strong lead, 2 inches in diameter, and carried up outside the building from the branch of the lowest closet to a point above the highest closet, and there connected with the upper part of the soil-pipe. Branch anti-syphonage pipes are taken from the traps of the two upper closets into the main pipe.
The housemaid's sink Q on the second-floor landing is of wood lined with lead, and the waste-pipe is "connected into the side of the D-trap of the W.C. k ". The position of the sink is, we are told, faulty, as " any place in which slop-pails, etc, are kept should have plenty of light and ventilation, all of which are here absent". The removal of the sink to the third floor at Q will not improve matters unless a separate skylight is inserted in the roof over: this alteration is not suggested by the Commissioners, nor is the cost included in the estimate which accompanies their report. The suggestion of the Commisioners that light can be obtained through the new skylight or sash provided for the cistern-room over, does not commend itself to the sanitarian. The new sink must be of enamelled fire-clay, and must have a 1 1/2-inch lead waste-pipe with "a cast-lead syphon trap fitted with a brass cleansing screw" immediately under the sink. "This waste-pipe is to be carried down to the basement at the side of rain-water pipe B, fitted at the bottom with a brass thimble, and continued in a strong iron pipe with caulked-lead joints under the floor of the passage and pantry into the front area, where it delivers over a gully. The upper end of this pipe is to be carried up in the cistern-room and through the lead flat over, where it finishes about 12 inches above the flat, the end being fitted with a copper-wire cover. The trap must be provided with an anti-syphonage pipe connected with the ventilating pipe. . . . The whole of the floor of this closet should be covered with 7-lb. lead, close copper-nailed round and across."
Fig. , 695. - Section showing Soil-pipe for a Tier of Three Closets with Anti-syphonage Pipe, &c.
The stone sink at R, which is fitted with a bell-trap, should be replaced with a glazed-stoneware sink, fitted with a 2-inch lead waste and syphon-trap, and 1 1/2-inch lead anti-syphonage pipe, as shown in Fig. 201, page 310, vol. i.
The lead-lined sink S in the servants' hall has a 1-inch waste passing into a 6-inch D-trap and thence into the drain. In place of this a deep glazed stoneware sink should be fixed, and fitted with a brass plug-waste, and with a l 1/4-inch lead waste-pipe and trap, and a l-inch anti-syphonage pipe.
As the sink T in the pantry is chiefly used for washing glass, it should be lined with lead, and the adjacent draining-board may be covered with pewter. The sink should have two compartments, and be fitted with waste-pipe, trap. and anti-syphonage pipe as the sink s.
The waste-pipe from the lead-lined sink U in the housekeeper's room is disconnected from the drain, but is not trapped. A new small enamelled fire clay sink should be provided, with a 1 1/4-inch waste-pipe trapped as above, and carried to the gully h h.
The bath-room on the second floor has neither direct light nor ventilation. These defects are very cleverly remedied by cutting out part of the floor of the box-room over, and forming a shaft for light and air up to the new skylight in the lead flat. The space occupied by the old Bramah closet L is added to the bath-room. The old bath is of painted zinc, and inclosed with a mahogany casing. Under the bath is a lead safe with a sunk well, from which the waste water passes through a small D-trap into the soil-pipe p. The waste and overflow of the bath deliver over the trap in the well of the safe. The recommendations include a new cast-iron bath with a mahogany top, but without wood inclosure, and a new overflow from the safe earned through the external wall, or, if this cannot be done on account of the position of the floor-joists, connected with the rain-water pipe b. The bath-waste should be of lead, 1 1/2 inches in diameter, "continued under the floor of the servants' hall into a strong 2-inch cast-iron drain-pipe laid on 6 inches of concrete, to deliver over the gully x in the middle area '".