The hot-water service is on the tank-system, and the Commissioners recom-mend that the tank he removed and a 50-gallon galvanized-iron cylinder be

1 instead at 1 1 . close to the kitchen-range. The cylinder should be incased with asbestos to prevent loss of heat, the inspection-plate, however, being left The old boiler is not provided with a safety-valve. The following improvements are suggested: - "Carry up a short 1 1/4-inch pipe from the top of the cylinder, and fix on the end of same a dead-weight safety-valve. In this position the valve will be more accessible, and less liable to become corroded with dirt than if placed in the chimney; or should the valve be taken directly off the boiler. which most authorities insist upon, it should be brought through the chimney-breast When the boiler is charged, lift the weight of valve, that this pipe from the boiler may be charged also, or steam will generate in it." The Commissioners also draw attention to the necessity for removing the incrustation from kitchen boilers at regular intervals.

The old drains, shown on the basement plan, are badly designed, the curves preventing inspection, and rendering the clearing of the drains in case of stoppage an impossible task; the curves also check the flow of sewage, and thus tend to allow deposits to take place. The main drain is 9 inches in diameter, and therefore much too large: the branches are formed with 6-inch and 4-inch pipes, laid without concrete beds, and have sunk in several places, causing leakage. The traps are of bad design; bell-traps occur at w, y, and I, a D-trap at x. and brick-built traps at E and z. The drain from the latter trap to the sewer is of brick. and 14 inches in diameter; the pipe from the adjacent w.c is connected with this drain on the sewer side of the trap. It will be noticed that no provision is made for ventilating the drains, the result being the accumulation of foul air throughout the system and the consequent pollution of the air in the house.

The new drain from the inspection-chamber z to the disconnecting chamber C C must be of cast-iron 4 inches in diameter, and coated internally with Angus Smith's solution; the strength of the pipe is vaguely described as "stout". The branch-drains are to be of London glazed-stoneware pipes. All drains must be laid on a 6-inch bed of cement concrete, and covered with concrete after being tested; the bed of concrete is designed to prevent settlement of the drain, end the covering to prevent fracture end (in the case of the iron pipe) corrosion. Trapped gullies must be fixed in the new area at a a, in the middle of the central area at \, another in the same area at y to receive the waste from the sink fourth in the front area at h h to receive the waste from the sink Dead from the boiler w, another at D D to drain the front area, and one at F F to receive the water from the sink T and the rain-water pipes a and b. A Hushing gully, similar to that shown in Fig. 389, page 473, vol. i. must be fixed in the central area to receive the waste from the scullery -ink r, the gully to be flushed by means of a 30-gallon automatic galvanized-iron flushing-tank, fixed on iron brackets in the kitchen, about 8 feet from the ground.

The disconnecting chamber CC must have a concrete bottom with white-glazed channels, syphon trap with 4-inch contracted inlet and 5-inch outlet, stock-brick sides in cement mortar, galvanized cast-iron air-tight frame and cover, and a 4-inch air-inlet at EE, having a pipe carried up in a chase cut in the front wall of the area, and finished with a galvanized box and grating The inspection-chamber z is similar to the chamber c c, except that it has neither a trap nor an air-inlet.

On the completion of the work the drains and manholes should be tested with water, and "after the manhole-covers have been bedded down in Russian tallow, the soil-pipes and drains should be finally tested by means of smoke chemicals ".

A detailed estimate of the cost of the whole of the work required in improving the water-service and sanitary arrangements in the house, as shown in Plate WW. is given in the Report of the Commissioners, and although the juices are undoubtedly high, a summary of the figures may be useful. See Table XL., page 392.

In Plate XXVI. a house of the same size as that just considered La shown, the left-hand drawings giving the original arrangements, and the right-hand showing the alterations. On account of the better position of the water-closets, etc, the cost of bringing this house up to the modern standard is only 377, 10s. 2d., that is to say. 240, 13s. 8d. less than in the previous case.

The alterations in this house recommended by the Commissioners are briefly as follows, the references being to the letters on the Plate: -

A. This rain-water pipe is satisfactorily disconnected over a gully in the front area, and does not require alteration.

B. This rain-water pipe discharges over a gully in the cupboard near the door of the servants' hall, a bad position; the gutter on the lead flat must be alto

Table XL. Estimated Cost Of Improving The Water-Service And Sanitary Arrangements Of A Terrace-House.1

s.

d.

Work in connection with rain-water pipes, and drains therefrom,

18

10

8

,,

,,

,,

water-service and cisterns,2 .. ..

81

12

11

,,

,,

,,

water closets,3 .. .. .. ..

269

2

6

,,

,,

,,

sinks, .. .. .. .. ..

52

13

3

,,

,,

,,

bath,4 .. .. .. ..

51

9

4

,,

,,

,,

hot water, .. .. .. ..

36

3

9

New drains, .. .. .. ..

91

15

5

New inspection-chambers, .. .. .. ..

86

16

0

Cutting and making good generally.

20

0

0

638

3

10

Credit value of old materials,

20

0

0

Net cost,

618

3

10

so that the pipe can be taken outside the building, and made to empty on the Hat below.

C. This rain-water pipe is only 2 1/2 inches in diameter, and should he replaced by a new 3 1/2-inch galvanized cast-iron pipe, the larger pipe being necessitated by the additional water which the alteration of the pipe B has diverted in this direction.

D. This rain-water pipe is 4 inches in diameter and disconnected at the foot; the gully must be removed, and the pipe connected directly with the drain. so that it will serve as a ventilating shaft for the portion of the new drain between the back and central areas. The use of rain-water pipes as ventilating shafts is not always advisable; in this case, however, the drain is short, and does not receive anything of a very foul character.