O. Reline this sink with 6-lb. lead, ventilate the traps, and extend the waste-pipes so as to discharge over the altered gully x. The Commissioners recommend the removal of the adjacent filter, as "a neglected filter is infinitely worse than none at all .

P. This sink must be treated as the last, the waste being made to discharge over the gully t.

Q. Instead of the sink Q, fix an enamelled fire-clay -ink, with 1 1/4-inch trapped waste-pipe discharging into the gully s.

R. The old zinc bath with wood rasing must he removed to make way an enamelled cast-iron hath, which must be fitted with a l 1/2-inch trap and waste-pipe carried into the waste from the sink M; the trap of the bath must be ventilated by a pipe connected with the anti-syphonage pipe from the same sink.

The hot-water service must be altered to the cylinder-system, as in the previous example.

S, T, and U, on the corrected plan, are new gullies to receive the discharges of the various waste-pipes.

V. This represents, on the corrected plan, the new soil-pipe and drain-ventilating pipe.

The drains should be relaid as shown on the corrected plan, in order that the inspection-chamber \v and the disconnecting chamber Z. may be in the areas instead of under the floor of the house, and to avoid the long branches, Ac The new drain from chamber to chamber must be of 4-inch "heavy" cast-iron pipes coated with Angus Smith's solution: the other drains may be of stoneware pipes laid on concrete.

The estimated cost of the alterations to this house is .377. 10s. 2d.

The third and last example cited by the Commissioners is a suburban villa, shown in Fig. 698.

The rain-water pipes, Nos. 1, 2, and 4, must be disconnected to discharge over the trapped gullies E, D, and a, and that marked No. 3 should, it is said. be connected directly with the side inlet of the gully c by means of 4-inch drain pipes. This is done in order to avoid a long length of unventilated drain, but the same object can be attained by fixing a shoe at the foot of the rain-water pipe, and an untrapped grate in the drain under it: this branch will be cut off from the remainder of the drainage system by the trapped gully C . and will itself be open to the air at both ends.

The water-service arrangements are satisfactory, except that the cistern should be provided with a lid. and a 3/4-inch dead-weight safety-valve should be fixed on a short length of steam-pipe carried from the top of the kitchen boiler.

The water-closets are defective. That on the first floor is a valve-closet with cast-lead trap and short length of soil-pipe, the latter connected, by means of a red-lead joint, with the branch of a 4-inch cast-iron rain-water pipe; to make matters worse, the joint is in the middle of the wall, as shown at a in Fig. 699, and the branch is angular instead of curved. The recommendations of the Commissioners include the fixing of a pedestal-closet with slop-top and lead trap; 3 1/2-inch branch-pipe of 10-lb. lead with brass thimble at the outer end, so that a caulked joint can be made between it and the branch of the new cast-iron soil-pipe; 3 1/2-inch cast-iron soil-pipe weighing not less than 56 lbs. per 6-feet length, with caulked joints, and carried up about 5 feet above the gutter or 1 foot above the ridge; 2-inch lead anti-syphonage pipe; 3-gallon silent cistern with 1 1/4-inch flush-pipe; self-raising mahogany seat; and lead safe with l 1/4-inch overflow through the external wall. Remove the wash-out closet in the yard w.c, and fix in its place a wash-down closet with Strap, supported on a brick pedestal, and cement the floor and walls around the apparatus

Fig. 698.   Corrected Sanitary Arrangements of a Suburban Villa.

Fig. 698. - Corrected Sanitary Arrangements of a Suburban Villa.

The lavatory-basin L must be fitted with a 1 1/2-inch drawn-lead syphon trap, and l 1/4-inch anti-syphonage pipe carried through the wall and finished with crossed copper wires.

The bath K is of cast-iron without in-closure. It requires a 1 1/4-inch "running" trap, and l 1/4-inch waste-pipe carried down to the gully b and up (as a ventilating pipe) through the projecting eaves, where it must be Hashed around; a 1-inch anti-syphonage pipe must be taken from the trap into this ventilating pipe.

The scullery sink is of stone, and must, it is said, have a 2 1/2-inch drawn-had S-trap, 2 1/2-inch lead waste discharging over the gully b, and l 1/2-inch anti-syphonage pipe. These sizes seem unnecessarily large.

The ventilation of the drains is secured by the air-inlet at 1 and the extract-pipe at F, the latter being of cast-iron similar to the soil-pipe and carried about 4 feet through the roof. The inlet will be carried only about 2 feet above the ground, and fitted with a grating at the top.

The drains must be of 6-inch London-made glazed-stoneware pipes with 4-inch branches, all surrounded with concrete. A disconnecting chamber must be built at J, measuring 3 feet by 2 feet 3 inches inside, of 9-inch brickwork in cement, with concrete bottom, glazed channel and junction (the channel to fall 6 inches in the length of the chamber), syphon trap, and galvanized-iron cover. The chamber at G will be similar, but without trap and air-inlet. The gullies a, D, and e must have half-channel side-inlets and galvanized-wire covers, and the gully b must have "an egg-shaped bottom, with back-inlet for scullery-sink waste and a side-inlet for waste of bath". The drains and soil-pipe must be tested as in the first example.

The estimated cost of carrying out the work in this villa is I17, 17s. 5d.

Fig. 699. A, Faulty; B, satisfactory Connection of Closet outgo with Soil pipe.

Fig. 699.-A, Faulty; B, satisfactory Connection of Closet outgo with Soil pipe.