This section is from the book "The Principles And Practice Of Modern House-Construction", by G. Lister Sutcliffe. Also available from Amazon: How Your House Works: A Visual Guide to Understanding & Maintaining Your Home.
Mr. Rogers Field has also devised another form of tank, which is shown in Fig. 408, called the "Self-acting Flush-tank", and which may be used in connection with sink-wastes. The apparatus consists of a cylindrical water-tight iron tank a, having a trapped inlet B, which also forms a movable cover to give access to the inside of the tank, and a socket c for a ventilating pipe. The outlet consists of a syphon DE f, so arranged that no discharge takes place till the tank is completely filled with sewage, when the syphon is brought into action, and the contents are immediately discharged. The outer end F of the syphon dips into a discharging trough c; attached to the flange of the syphon by a movable button H, so as to be turned round in the right direction to connect the tank with the line of the outlet-pipe I. This trough has a barrier J across it. with a notch so contrived as to assist small quantities of liquid in bringing the syphon into action, instead of merely dribbling over the syphon without charging it, as they otherwise would do. Tin-cover of this trough can be removed to give access for cleaning. There is also a brass-wire strainer K, which is clipped on to the inner end d of the syphon, and can be taken off at will; and a -brass plug l is fitted to the bend E of the syphon, in case it should at any time be necessary to examine or clear it. The pipe M represents a waste-water pipe (usually from a sink), through which the supply of sewage is conveyed to the tank. Fig. 409 represents Field's flush-tank made in stoneware, which work the same manner as that made in iron, the only difference being that the syphon is placed in a different position.
Fig 407 -Section of Merrill's Patent Hashing Syphon with Tipping Bucket.
Fig 408 -Section of Fields Self-acting Flush-tank.
Fig 409. - Section and End Deration of Field's Stoneware Flush- tank.
This flush-tank must be fixed outside the house or building, and in some convenient position between the supply and the drain to be flushed, and the supply must be connected with the inlet and the drain with the outlet of th«-tank. There is no house in which there is not sufficient waste-water for flushing by means of this apparatus. The water from the sink is generally available as a supply, and the tank is specially adapted for this, as it forms the most perfect kind of trap, breaking the connection between the drains and the house, and intercepting the solid matter. Where the drains have only a slight fall, advantage can be taken of the height of the sink by placing the top of the tank above the ground. The drippings from a water-tap, or the rain-water from the roof, may also be used as a supply. A very small accession of water will start the syphon when the tank is once full, but should it occasionally remain full for some time in consequence of insufficient supply, a jug of water, thrown on the grating of the inlet, will immediately set the .syphon in action. Adams's glazed-ware syphon, shown in Fig. 410, can also be used for Hush ing house-drains with dirty water. It is made in any size from 3 gallons up to 40 gallons. It does not start with a dribble supply, but is filled with any house-waste (soil-pipe excepted), and when full, the addition of a little more -as by the emptying of a bowl or basin into the sink - at once sets up syphonic action, and the full contents of the vessel are discharged to the drain. In this also provision is made for cleansing by the cap, as the apparatus working with dirty or greasy water, requires periodical cleansing. A stone dish may be placed directly over the inlet, or a branch-drain may he connected thereto.
Fig 410. -Adams Glazed-ware Flush-tank, for Use with Waste-water.
Fig. 411 - Duckett's Tipper used for Flushing Drains.
The tipper or tumbler, as used in connection with slop-water closets, can also be adapted for the purpose of flushing drains. For some years I had, at a house in which 1 resided, a 5-gallon tipper fixed in the gully receiving the bath-waste, as shown in Fig. 411. It worked well, and was very serviceable in keeping the intercepting trap, which was about twelve yards away, always sweet and clean. This tipper can l>e made in any BUM in fire-clay up to 60 gallon.-, but.being rather heavy, it is a somewhat delicate operation to set the tippet in a true horizontal position so as to maintain its balance and the chamber in which it is fixed should lie securely protected with a dosed cover, so as to keep out any solid objects that would be liable to fall in and put the tipper out of gear.
For large houses and on long lengths of drains, a much larger quantity is required for flushing than can be economically stored in any of the appliances previously referred to, so that it is much more economical and satisfactory to construct a tank of brickwork, in which the Hushing appliance can be placed. This brickwork should always be set in cement, and it would be well to l>ack it with well-tempered clay puddle as far as the top of the syphon-The water may be taken from the house service-pipes, if a daily flush is required, or the overflow from any well, spring, or other private supply may be utilized, and, as far as possible, rain-water and the bath-waste. Fig. 412 shows a tank fitted with Field's syphon. Sometimes the trapping-box under the syphon is formed in concrete, but cast-iron, as shown in the illustration, is preferable. For a 6-inch drain, the depth of the syphon is 2 feet 2 inches, and for a 9-inch drain '2 feet 71/2 inches. Any of the other types of syphons previously described may be used in connection with these brick chambers, An arrangement has been designed by Messrs. Adams, so as to flush two ways, if desired.
Fig 411-Field's Automatic Flushing syphon In Brick Tank.