This section is from the book "The Principles And Practice Of Modern House-Construction", by G. Lister Sutcliffe. Also available from Amazon: How Your House Works: A Visual Guide to Understanding & Maintaining Your Home.
Government Board under the before mentioned section. Three of these related to slaughter-houses, two to water-supply, two to the drainage of houses, and one dealt with the cleansing of common stairs, &c; these were confirmed so far as they related to sanitary matters.
(60.) Offensive Trades. The Scotch classification of offensive trades is as follows: - "The business of a blood-boiler, bone-boiler, manure-manufscturer, soap-boiler, tallow-melter, knacker, tanner, tripe-boiler, gut or tripe cleaner, skinner or hide-factor, slaughterer of cattle or horses, or any other business which the Local Authority may declare, by order confirmed by the Board and published in the Edinburgh Gazette, to be an offensive business." Such businesses may neither be established, nor existing ones enlarged, without the sanction of the Local Authority, if they are situate within fire hundred yards from any burgh or village. Such businesses may be regulated by by laws. In a Burgh, the Commissioners have also the power of making by laws with regard to offensive businesses, whether they are newly established or not
(61.) Water and Water-supply. The words "lands" and "land in the Lands Clauses Act, and in the Public Health (Scotland) Act, include water and the right thereto: which definition facilitates much the provision where neeecary of a public water-supply by the Local Authority. The Secretary for Scotland is empowered to issue provisional orders putting in force the Lands Clauses Acts with regard to water-supply and drainage. In Landward (rural) Districts, the Local Authority may provide for the whole District a water-supply, and in that case the water-rate falls upon the whole District. The Local Authority may also take a smaller area, and, forming it into a Special District, give a supply, and the rate then falls only on the District benefited. It appears to be necessary, in forming a Special District, that the Local Authority shall be first moved by a requisition of ten inhabitants, and if there is opposition and an appeal is taken, then the consent of the sheriff is necessary
Towns or Burghs requiring a water-supply, and no water-company existing and willing to supply the water, may take advantage of the powers either under the Public Health (Sotland) Acts, or under the Burgh Police (Scotland) Act Under the first-named Acts, the Local Authority of a Burgh with a population of 10,000 or more, or having a local Police Act, may provide a water-supply themselves, or contract with a water-company. In Burghs under 10,000, or in any Burgh where the local Police Act makes insufficient provision, the Lands Clauses Acts may be made use of, and, if necessary, the compulsory powers of those Acts may be applied by provisional order. The Burghal Authority may purchase the undertaking of a water-company, or contract with the company, hut must not compete with it.
The Burgh Police Act only applies to Burghs which have not been supplied with water before 1895 under a local Act or Acts. It enables the Burgh Commissioners of a Burgh with a population below 5000, to apply the compulsory clauses of the Lands Clauses Act, with the consent of the sheriff and without provisional order, for the purposes of a water-supply.
With regard to the water-supply of individual houses, the Public Health (Water) Act, 1878, does not apply to Scotland, but Section 125 of the Public Health (Scotland) Act, 1897, provides that "if any occupied house within the District of any Local Authority is without a proper supply of wholesome water at or reasonably near the same, the Local Authority shall require the owner to obtain such supply, and do all such works as may be necessary for that purpose"; on failure, they may themselves obtain such supply, recovering the whole or part of the expense in a summary manner. The Local Authority may also execute works for a joint-supply to two or more houses, and apportion the expense. The Local Authority has also the same general duties and powers as under the English Acts with regard to water-supply.
In Burghs an owner may be compelled to supply water within the house.
(62.) Pollution of Drinking-water. A polluted supply of drinking-water is made a nuisance, to be abated summarily, as previously detailed, Section 16 (3).
Under Sections 127 129, Public Health (Scotland) Act. any person engaged in the manufacture of gas, naphtha, vitriol, paraffin, or dye-stuffs, or any other deleterious substance, or in any trade in which the refuse produced in any such manufacture is need, who shall at any time cause or suffer to be brought, or to How into any water used for domestic purposes, any product, washing, or other substance produced in such manufacture or wilfully do any act to pollute any such water, shall forfeit for every such offence a sum not exceeding £50.The defaulter is also liable after twenty-four hours' notice by the Local Authority, or the party aggrieved, to a fine of £5 per day during which the pollution continues. As before mentioned, the Riven Pollution (Prevention) Act is in force in Scotland.
As to the drainage of houses, it is enacted that "if a house, distillery, manufactory, or other work is without a drain, or without such drain as is sufficient for effectual drainage", a drain must be provided, connected either with a cess-pool or a sewer, Section 120.
(64.) Powers with regard to the Prevention of Disease. The Infectious Diseases Notification Act is now extended to every part of Scotland (Public Health (Scotland) Act, 1897, Section 44). and the Infectious Diseases Prevention Act, although not in force as a separate statute, has been embodied in the new Public Health Act, but with several important amendments.
A medical officer may enter and inspect at reasonable times in the daytime any house or premises in his district, in which he has reason to believe that any infectious disease exists, or has recently existed, and medically examine any person found on the premises. Obstruction is dealt with in the usual way (Public Health (Scotland) Act, 1897, Section 45). Local Authorities may provide disinfecting appliances, and, if required to do so by the Board, must provide such appliances. The procedure with regard to the cleansing and disinfecting of premises in cases of infectious disease is similar to that under the Public Health (London) Act (ibid., Section 47).