Galziron strainer and standing waste Fig. 276   Galvanised iron Sink for Waste Metal Utensiles.

Galziron strainer and standing waste Fig. 276 - Galvanised iron Sink for Waste Metal Utensiles.

The glazed fire-clay sinks already referred to are most appropriate for larder and dairy use, and for cooks' sinks.

Nursery sinks are best made of white enamelled porcelain ware. They should be about 2 feet long, 1 foot 2 indies wide, and G inches deep, inside measurement.

All sinks, except the shallower kinds for scullery use. and the cheaper kinds of stoneware, should be so fitted up that they can be filled with water, and it is also convenient that arrangement should be made for permitting the water to run through continuously. For these purposes an overflow orifice is necessary, and it is most essential that this should be readily accessible for cleaning in all its parts. There are several methods of arranging the overflow and waste. The ordinary plug-waste and overflow for a lead-lined wood sink are shown in Fig. 278. In a cast-iron sink (Fig. 279) the waste-outlet is closed by an ordinary brass plug and washer, and the overflow is carried away through a series of slots by a sort of by-pass formed in the end of the sink, to the waste-pipe just below the plug. The overflow arm in this case cannot be properly cleansed, and is therefore liable to become offensive.

Fig. 280 shows a section of the overflow in a glazed fire-clay sink, which is an improvement on the last, inasmuch as the overflow arm is continued up to the top of the sink, and can be cleansed by means of a long brush.

Fig. 277  Wood Sink for Washing Silver , etc A,the Framework; B, the completed Sink

Fig. 277 -Wood Sink for Washing Silver , etc A,the Framework; B, the completed Sink.

Fig. 278   Plug  waste and Overflow from Wood Sink.

Fig. 278 - Plug -waste and Overflow from Wood Sink.

Fig. -281 shows an arrangement that can be adapted to any kind of sink, and one in which h the overflow arm is entirely dispensed with. The funnel, which can be made either in nickel-plated brass or tinned copper, acts both as overflow and plug, and can be readily lifted out by the ring at the top. To guard against breakage by impact against the funnel, and also to prevent floating substances escaping into the waste, a tinned copper strainer can be fixed round the funnel. \nother plan is to form the overflow in a sort of projecting recess, somewhat after the manner of the lavatory shown in Fig. 271; this is an arrangement peculiar to glazed fire-clay sinks.

Fig 279 Cast iron Kitchen sink. A, Sketch; B, Section of Waste Overflow

Fig 279-Cast iron Kitchen-sink. A, Sketch; B, Section of Waste Overflow.

The form of grating to be fixed in the waste-outlet of a sink should be carefully proportioned to the ana of the waste-pipe itself. For example, if the waste-pipe be 2 inches in diameter, the sum of the areas of all the openings in the grating should equal the area of the 2-inch waste-pipe. For this purpose the mouth of the waste-pipe between the outlet and the trap should be- widened out to give the requisite surface. A very common fault in waste-fittings is that the free way of the outlet grating is much less in area than the area of the waste-pipe, and in consequence the discharge of the water (which ought to be as rapid as possible) is sluggish, and neither the sink nor the trap gets the scouring-out which is so desirable.

SECTION.

SECTION.

Fig. 280   Section of glazed Fire clay Sink, showing Waste and Overflow.

Fig. 280 - Section of glazed Fire-clay Sink, showing Waste and Overflow.

PLAN

PLAN.

Fig. 281 - Plan and Section of tinned copper Strainer and Standing Waste.

The sinks described above have all been for the purpose of washing utensils wed for food or for its preparation. Another kind of sink has now to be considered, viz. the slop-sink. The use of a slop-sink is, in dwelling-houses, for the emptying of bedroom slops, and though it is far better to arrange the water closet in such a way that it can be used for this purpose, it becomes sometimes desirable to use the former. A convenient arrangement, where sufficient space is available, is to fix a ship-sink and wash-up sink side by side, with the waste from the latter discharging into the former. These sinks are made in glazed tin- (lay. which is proluibly the best and cleanest material for the purpose. They are also made of cast-iron, finished inside with a porcelain enamel. The wash-up sink serves also as a draw-off sink for hot and told water. The waste-pipe from a slop -sink should invariably be treated in the same manner as a soil-pipe from a water-closet, and the sink itself should be provided with a flushing-rim, as shown in fig 282, to which water should be laid on from a flushing-cistern of at least 2 gallons capacity.

In form a slop-sink should be either round or square. If the latter, the angles should be well-rounded, and the Bides and bottom sloped to the outlet. They should of course be provided with a trap, which may either be of lead or of iron, enamelled white inside. This trap must he safeguarded against syphon-age, either by being made in the "anti-D" form, or by being provided with an anti-syphonage pipe.

An apparatus designed by Mr. J. J. Lish, an architect of much experience and repute in the north of England, may conveniently be described here, as it combine, in itself the following features: - 1, a water-closet; 2, an automatic ventilator; :3. an urinal. 4. a lavatory: 5, a draw-off sink; 6, a slop-sink; 7, a fountain or rising douche- bath.

The water-closet itself is made in the form known as the wash-down or "hygienic", and in itself presents no features of an unusual kind. At the back of the seat is a high wooden easing, which forms a ventilating shaft, the upcast current of air being assisted by the hot-water pipe which is contained therein, and also by a gas jet placed here for that purpose. A reference to Plate \I|. will make the disposition of the various parts clear. Immediately above the w.c. basin is an upright slab of porcelain, which serves as the urinal back. The seat of the w.c. basin is hinged to the panelled upright back, and the latter is hinged at one side. To expose the urinal for use the seat is tamed up against the vertical hack, and both are then opened together like a door. The urinal is flushed automatically at each usage with the contents of a half-gallon extern. The flushing-pipe is shown at G; in the section Above the top of the urinal back is a nozzle, which communicates with both hot and cold water pipes by means of taps. On to this nozzle a robber-pipe is fixed with a Movie joint, and supplies water (either hot or cold, or both) to the fountain or rising douche-bath, which is made to fit on to the top of the w.c. basin. A basin, which fits into the rim of the w.c, is also supplied, which can be used either as a waahhand-baain or as a bidet; the water bing drawn from the nozzle on to which the fountain bath-pipe is slipped.

Fig .282   Section through glazed  ware Slop sink with Flashing  rim and Grid.

Fig .282 - Section through glazed- ware Slop-sink with Flashing -rim and Grid.

Plate XII

SECTION.

SECTION.

FRONT ELEVATION (to a smaller scales.)

FRONT ELEVATION (to a smaller scales.).

PLAN.

PLAN.

A. Closet Basin.

B. Urinal alab set on the rim of the W.C. basin.

C. Flushing pipe for urinal slab.

D. Boxed-in space with doors for access, these doors being perforated to prevent any accumulation of foul air.

V Ventilation shaft.

LISH'S COMBINED WATER-CLOSET, UR1NAL, SINK, DOUCHE-BATH, LAVATORY. etc.

The use of the apparatus as a slop-sink is sufficiently obvious to nerd no explanation, and hot and cold water are of course both readily accessible.

The action of the ventilation shaft is such that a current of air is continually ascending from the drain or soil-pipe side of the trap, and from the surface of the basin to the outlet. Thus both sides of the trap are continuously air-washed, and any vitiated or offensive air in the w.c is regularly extracted. Unfortunately no specimens of this most interesting invention have yet been fixed further south than Edinburgh, and the foregoing description has had to be compiled from diagrams and written information, and without reference to the actual thing. Enough has been said, however, to show that the apparatus is one of great merit, and, if in practice it fulfils all that its author claims for it. it is the nearest approach to a sanitarily perfect closet that has yet been made.