A form of rack often recommended is quadrant-shaped, the bottom being on a level with the top of the manger, and in this case it should be fitted with a sloping perforated bottom, which allows the seed to drop through, and always keeps the hay close to the front of the rack,and within reach of the horse.

The front of the manger should be of considerable strength, rounded, so that the horse could not grasp it for "crib-biting". It is a great advantage to have the water-pot made without a brass plug or chain, but on the "tip-up" principle. This can be so arranged that while the attendant can turn it over to empty, the horse cannot possibly disturb it. The water is discharged into a waste-chamber, from which a metal pipe leads to a continuation of the stall-gutter; this is of great service for flushing the latter out. The tumbling principle may also be applied to the manger, rendering it more easily washed out when necessary. Another advantage in the manger is a cross-bar. which prevents the horse " nosing" corn or other food over the edge.

The tying of the horse in his stall is of some importance, and in this several improvements have been made, with the object of avoiding noise, and preventing the horse (if startled or frightened) injuring himself, or pulling away or breaking the manger. In Musgrave's patent tying the horse is not fastened to the manger, but the chain or halter works through a long slit in the top plate, or a front guide-ring, which allows it to play as freely as if there were no manger before the horse. The bracket supporting the manger holds back the halter-weight close to the wall. The weight has an india-rubber buffer on the top.

Fig. 733. Manger, Hay rack, etc.

Fig. 733. Manger, Hay rack, etc.

which, when suddenly pulled up, strikes a flat place below the bracket and prevents noise, besides checking to some extent the shock to the horse. The upper end of the manger-chain or halter has a small ball, which stops when it comes to the slit in the top plate, and relieves the horse of the weight while feeding, the weight only coming into play when the horse draws back or throws up his head. There are several modifications of this principle, but all contain the buffer on the weight, and the ball to prevent it dragging needlessly upon the horse. Leather is sometimes substituted for the chain in the part passing through the ring, so as still further to reduce noise. The tying also is sometimes duplicated, so as to prevent all possibility of the horse breaking away. The ventilation of the stable is of supreme importance, as probably one-half of the diseases from which horses suffer may be traced directly or indirectly to defective ventilation. The method found most satisfactory is by the introduction of a small glazed ventilator in the stable wall, as high above the horse's head as possible. The fresh air, being thrown upward towards the ceiling, carries the air, as heated and contaminated by the horse's breath, towards the back of the stable. From this, one or more shafts should be provided, according to the size of the stable, but at least one to every three or four horses, up through the loft, and discharging (if possible) at the ridge through a suitable ventilating-cowl. The system of ventilation is shown in Fig. 730, page 454, which also shows the system of drainage, and the stalls as closed with the sliding barriers referred to in the description of the stall-divisions. The ventilation-pipe from the drain would perhaps be better discharged independently above the eaves, and not in such close proximity to the ventilation from the stable.1

In ventilation, as in everything else about a stable, simplicity is of the first importance. Beware of elaborate contrivances, that look pretty upon paper, but require constant attention to ensure their proper working. An automatic system depending solely upon the How of the atmospheric currents, and tin-poise and counterpoise always going on between the inner and outer temperature and consequent weight of the air, may fail during some rare calm or on an exceptionally hot day. but, on the other hand, it is independent of the stableman, who probably understands but little of the theory of ventilation, and is liable to be careless or indifferent even when he does.

Fig. 734.   Musgrave's Horse tying Arrangement.

Fig. 734. - Musgrave's Horse tying Arrangement.

Fig. 735   Combined Window and Air Inlet HAY LOFTS AND HARNESS ROOMS.

Fig. 735 - Combined Window and Air Inlet HAY-LOFTS AND HARNESS-ROOMS.

Another method of ventilation, first suggested by Mr. Alfred Waterhouse, R.A., is a modification of that generally known as "Tobin's". The end of the stall-division nearest the horse's head is cast hollow, in the form of an oblong tube, at the lower end of which the air is introduced by a grating in the outside wall, and passing up the hollow with an impetus towards the ceiling spreads out all round with the absence of draught usual in the Tobin system.

As before stated, the heated air from the stable should not he allowed to escape into the hay-loft, either through traps in the ceiling or through other openings; a special air-shaft should be provided, and the hay brought down through a shoot if possible in an outside passage, or in the fodder-room. The loft-stairs also should not rise directly from the stable. To render the stable ceiling completely air-tight may not be easy, for plaster is not desirable under a hay-loft, and boarding, even when grooved and tongued, is apt to shrink and become far from impervious. Felt, or at least brown paper, laid under the floor-boarding or over the ceiling-boarding, answers the purpose well, however, and is not expensive. The hay-loft should, of course, be well ventilated by louvred windows, arranged to allow a full current of air through every part of the loft.