151. Circular-Head Door And Frame

This door is made double, as shown in the plan (page 96). The frame is of 3 X 3/8-inch flat iron on both sides of a sheet-iron plate of from No. 16 to No. 20 gauge. The panels are formed by bars running horizontally as well as vertically, the moulded-panel effect being given by a cast-iron moulding 3/8 of an inch deep by one inch long. The entire work is riveted with 5/16 inch-diameter rivets, with heads smoothed off.

The frame upon which the door hangs is made of cast-iron 3/8 of an inch thick, and secured to the masonry with lag screws.

The cast-iron saddle is 3/4 of an inch thick, extends across the entire opening, and is secured to the cast-iron frame.

Bolts are placed top and bottom of door as shown in the elevation and section.

152. Sidewalk Door

These doors are set level with the sidewalk into a cast-iron frame or a stone coping. The section (see page 97) as shown at A-B is a cast-iron frame, with a raised lip cast on to prevent surface water from entering the opening.

The door frame is made of 2 X 1/2-inch flat wrought-iron bars, and covered with sheet iron of No. 12 to No. 14 gauge (No. 12 being the heaviest), with rivet-heads, 4 to 6 inches between centres, projecting above the surface.

The doors are secured to the cast-iron frame by wrought-iron, brass, or bronze hinges 1/2 inch thick.

At the centre of each door a rebate is formed by riveting to it a 3 X 3 X 3/8-inch angle iron, which also adds considerable stiffness to the doors when closed. To secure them when shut, a padlock is placed in centre, with bolts at each end.

152 Sidewalk Door images/ArchitecturalIronAndSteel01 54

A 4-inch-diameter ring 1/2 inch thick is placed on the outside, by which to raise the doors when required to be opened.

152 Sidewalk Door images/ArchitecturalIronAndSteel01 55

A resting block in the shape of a triangle is secured to the sidewalk, for each door to rest against when open; and a 7/8-inch diameter bar, turned down at each end, resting in an eye riveted to the frame, holds the door open at an angle of 75 degrees.

153. Outside Folding Shutters

Outside Folding Shutters are constructed of flat iron frames, and covered with crimped or plain sheet iron of No. 16 to No. 20 gauge (No. 16 being the heaviest), and riveted to the frames with 5/16-inch-diameter rivets, placed at four to six inches (between centres) apart. The heads on inside of frame are flattened and filed off smooth.

153 Outside Folding Shutters images/ArchitecturalIronAndSteel01 56

If the opening is flush on four sides, the sheet iron should project 1 1/2 inches all around; if the sills are not flush with masonry, but project two inches or more, the sheet iron will not project beyond bottom of frame.

The shutters are supported by strap hinges, the size of which is proportioned to the size and weight of shutter. For an ordinary-sized opening, from 4 to 7 feet, the shutters are made in twofold, with the frame 2" X 3/8 of an inch thick; if very stiff frames are required, 1 1/2 X 1 1/2 X 3/8-inch angle iron should be used.

154. Shutter Hinges

For shutters to openings 5 feet and less in width the hinges are made of 2 X 3/8-inch flat bars as shown at F, with a 3/4 inch-diameter pin working in a cast-iron shutter eye built in with the wall.

The shutters are secured, when shut, by a latch hooking over the cross-bar E, as shown in sketch of latch at A, and further secured by bolts top and bottom. (See sketch of bolt, also showing flush sill and window head).

155. Storm Hooks

Storm Hooks are used for securing the shutters when open, made of a 3/4-inch-diameter bar with end turned down 2 inches, connected to eyes riveted to bottom of frame, and bracing the shutters by setting the turned-down end into a hole drilled into stone sill.

156. Shutter Eyes

Shutter Eyes are made of 1/4-inch-thick cast iron in the shape as shown, cast the size of, and made to work in as, a brick, with an eye for the pin of hinge. The border is 3/8 of an inch thick, the web C is 1/4 of an inch. The open holes B are for bedding in cement or mortar.

157. Shutter Rings

Shutter Rings are used for attaching a hook on end of pole to open and close the shutters.

158. Cast-Iron Brick

Cast-Iron Brick are made similar to shutter eyes, but cast without an eye, and are built in with masonry, for securing all manner of iron work to jambs, where drilling or ham-mering might cause injury to the masonry.

Frames of doors, guards, and grilles are often secured to the bricks by first drilling, then tapping the holes and using tap bolts.

159. Rolling Steel Shutters

Rolling Steel Shutters are suitable for closing store fronts, warehouses, goods sheds, staircase openings, elevator openings, and in many cases where protection from fire and thieves is desired. The shutters are made of steel, corrugated and riveted together, forming a firm and unbroken surface. They can be made self-coiling up to twenty feet in width; and require no winding apparatus, being pushed up and down with a rod. They are also fitted with winding gear, and protected by metal shields which prevent the edges from being worn by friction in the iron grooves. These grooves are made of iron channel bars 1 1/2" X 1 1/2" X 1/4" thick.

159 Rolling Steel Shutters images/ArchitecturalIronAndSteel01 57

160. The Noiseless Shutter

The Noiseless Shutter consists in the application of strips of leather to the edge, which are woven through mortises in the steel, forming a protection to the parts that work in the grooves, and a cushion for the coils when rolled up. The effect of this leather is to reduce the vibration of the steel and cause the shutter to work easily and noiselessly in the grooves; also to vastly increase the wearing qualities and general usefulness.

The shutters are lubricated with "graphite axle grease" thinned down with oil, which gives a metallic polished surface to the leather edging, fills up any inequalities in the grooves and improves the working.

By referring to the elevation and section on page 100, it will be noticed that when the drum C receives the shutter when rolled up, a certain size space is required. This is governed by the size of opening or length of shutter.

The dotted line F represents the space when the drum C receives the entire shutter. B is a wrought-iron shaft on which the drum is secured. A is a plate with socket to support the shaft. D is the spring, I the corrugated shutter, and G the channel groove.

The following are the sizes of spaces required for different-sized openings:

Plain-Edge Steel Shutter

Height of Opening, feet.

Size of Space, inches.

4

8

6

9

8

10

10

12

12

13

14

13

16

14

18

15

20

16

24

18

Noiseless Or Leathered

Height of Opening, feet.

Size of Space, inches.

4

9

6

10

8

11

10

13

12

14

14

14

16

15

18

16

20

17

24

19

Note. - The author's attention has been called to a valuable device, patented by the Cornell Iron Works, for securing folding shutters when open, and closed.