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Architectural Iron And Steel, And Its Application In The Construction Of Buildings | by WM. H. Birkmire.



This work is intended for Architects, Architectural Stu-dents and Builders.The Author has been induced to prepare it because of his inability to find, among the many excellent works on the Mathematics of Construction, one that could be readily adapted as a reference book, treating of the various details of Iron and Steel as applied in the construction and finishing of buildings.

TitleArchitectural Iron And Steel, And Its Application In The Construction Of Buildings
AuthorWM. H. Birkmire.
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons
Year1891
Copyright1891, WM. H. Birkmire.
AmazonArchitectural Iron And Steel, And Its Application In The Construction Of Buildings

Including Beams And Girders In Floor Construction, Rolled Iron Struts, Wrought And Cast-Iron Columns, Fire-Proof Columns, Column Connections, Cast-Iron Lintels, Roof Trusses, Stairways, Elevator Enclosures, Ornamental Iron, Floor Lights And Skylights, Vault Lights, Doors And Shutters, Window Guards And Grilles, Etc., Etc., With Specification Of Ironwork.

And Selected Papers In Relation To Ironwork, From A Revision Of The Present Law Before The Legislature Affecting Public Interests In The City Of New York, In So Far As The Same Regulates The Construction Of Uildings In Said City.

Tables, Selected Expressly For This Work, Of The Properties Of Beams, Channels, Tees And Angles, Used As Beams, Struts And Columns, Weights Of Iron And Steel Bars, Capacity Of Tanks, Areas Of Circles, Weights Of Circular And Square Cast-Iron Columns, Weights Of Substances, Tables Of Squares, Cubes, Etc., Weights Of Sheet Copper, Brass And Iron, Etc.

Fully Illustrated.

Third Edition.

Preface

This work is intended for Architects, Architectural Stu-dents and Builders.

The Author has been induced to prepare it because of his inability to find, among the many excellent works on the Mathematics of Construction, one that could be readily adapted as a reference book, treating of the various details of Iron and Steel as applied in the construction and finishing of buildings.

It was considered advisable to give but general information on the manufacture of Iron in the first chapter, to serve as an introduction to the chapters on Construction which immediately follow, and to give in these chapters such simple formula and complete tables as would readily enable one to calculate the strength of beams, girders, etc., subject to a transverse strain, and of vertical supports subject to compression.

Desiring to give as much information as possible in relation to the construction and practical description of the miscellaneous details, especial attention has been given to their illustration.

Wm. H. Birkmire.

New York, March, i801.

-Chapter I. The Manufacture Of Iron
1. Iron Iron is obtained from its ores, in which it generally exists in the state of an oxide, combined with earthy or rocky matters, and frequently with carbon, sulphur, silica, manganese, etc. The...
-The Manufacture Of Iron. Part 2
10. Cold Bend Test A simple method of determining the quality is by the cold bend test, and is readily understood. It consists in bending by blows of a sledge-hammer, until the two sides approach eac...
-The Manufacture Of Iron. Part 3
Cast Iron. 19. Cast Iron Cast Iron for building purposes, possesses many advantages for strength, economy and adaptability to ornament and decoration. Unlike wrought iron and steel, it is not subject...
-Chapter II. Floors
25. Dead Load In arranging the beams upon the floor plan of a building, the first point to consider is the maximum load that will probably be placed upon the floor. The weight of the material compris...
-Floors. Part 2
34. Channels Channels are placed against walls in place of I beams to receive the wall arches. 35. Properties Of Wrought-Iron Channels Depth of Channel. Weight per ft. Area of ...
-Floors. Part 3
44. Bearing For Beams When the ends of beams rest upon walls, cast or wrought iron bed plates should be used to distribute the pressure over a greater surface. For buildings stone beds are generally ...
-Chapter III. Girders
52. Compound Girders Where spans occur too great to admit the use of rolled beams, compound girders are employed, made up of plates and angle irons. The single web or plate girder is the most econ...
-Girders. Part 2
60. Flanges Reduced In Thickness Near Ends In heavy girders a saving of iron may often be made by reducing the thickness of the flanges towards the ends of the girder, where the strain is less. Then ...
-Girders. Part 3
63. Cast-Iron Plates On Girders For Walls If large and thick walls are to be supported, and several inches intervene between flanges of beams, cast-iron plates are placed on top, providing a good bea...
-Chapter IV. Cast-Iron Lintels
67. Cast-Iron Lintels When the fracture of an iron lintel is produced by vertical pressure, the fibres or molecules of the lower section are separated by extension; consequently a lintel of the secti...
-Chapter V. Trusses
77. Roof Trusses There are several important points to be considered in planning a roof for a building. The trusses should be so placed as to be central over piers; consequently the number of trusses...
-Trusses. Continued
85. Truss No. 4 Truss No. 4 (Fig. 2) has horizontal top and bottom chords. One half of truss being drawn, the centre line of truss is at tie N. To draw the strain diagram Fig. 2A, lay off the loads ...
-Chapter VI. Struts
91. Rolled Iron Struts In the following consideration of rolled struts of various shapes, the least radius of gyration of the cross-section taken around an axis through the centre of gravity is assum...
-Struts. Part 2
95. Channel Struts The foregoing remarks apply also to channels, which are seldom used singly as struts, but frequently in pairs. When so used, if the methods of connection are not of such a nature a...
-Struts. Part 3
100. Properties Of Angles For Struts Even Legs. Size in inches. Weight per yard. Radii of Gyration. Distance, d from Base to Neutral Axis. Axis A B. Axis CD. ...
-Chapter VII. Cast-Iron Columns
102. Column Shafts Ornamented In almost all modern buildings cast-iron columns are used, not only for their strength in the support of the superstructure, but as a means of decoration, being ornament...
-Cast-Iron Columns. Part 2
109. Strength Of Cast-Iron Columns We owe our knowledge of the strength of cast-iron columns chiefly to the experiments of Mr. Eaton Hodgkinson in the year 1840. These were very numerous, and to a c...
-Cast-Iron Columns. Part 3
113. Ribbed Base Plates Ribbed Base Plates are used where large columns and heavy weights are carried to the base stone on these bases. The plate is ribbed to distribute the load over a greater area ...
-Chapter VIII. Wrought-Iron Columns
119. Wrought-Iron Column Sections What has been said in regard to Rolled Iron Struts in Chapter VI (Struts) applies also to wrought-iron columns. The following compound sections of I beams, channe...
-Chapter IX. Stairways
125. Close-String Stairs There is no part of a building which furnishes a better opportunity for ornamentation than the stairway. It is generally a continuation of the entrance-hall, and is the means...
-Stairways. Continued
131. Circular Stairs Circular Stairs are used where circumstances prevent the construction of a straight staircase. The treads and risers, as shown in the detail, are cast in one piece, placed over a...
-Chapter X. Ornamental Iron Work
140. Ornamental Design The art of ornamental design is appreciated both by the public and by the manufacturer, by the consumer as well as the producer of all the innumerable appliances of modern life...
-Chapter XI. Elevator Enclosures
147. Passenger-Elevator Enclosure The enclosure front represented in the annexed engraving is not a design of any particular merit, but is given here to illustrate the combination and construction. ...
-Elevator Enclosures. Continued
149. Double Sliding Doors For Passenger-Elevator Fronts Buildings not fire-proof having passenger-elevator shafts enclosed in a frame of iron filled with porous terra-cotta blocks, or enclosed in bri...
-Chapter XII. Doors And Shutters
151. Circular-Head Door And Frame This door is made double, as shown in the plan (page 96). The frame is of 3 X 3/8-inch flat iron on both sides of a sheet-iron plate of from No. 16 to No. 20 gauge. ...
-Chapter XIII. Floor Lights And Skylights
161. Cast-Iron Floor Lights For Iron Beams Cast-Iron Floor Lights For Iron Beams in the form as shown in the plate opposite, are cast in one piece. The glass is 6 inches square by 3/4 inch thick. The...
-Chapter XIV. Hollow Burnt Clay
166. Hollow Blocks For Arches These blocks are made of hard-burned fire-clay, hollow, of equal vertical thicknesses. The number of blocks varies according to size and distance between the iron beams....
-Chapter XV. Anchors
168. Ashler Anchors Where brick or stone walls are faced with stone ashler from 4 to 12 inches thick, and it is necessary to tie the outer surfaces to the body of the wall, ashler anchors are used. O...
-Chapter XVI. Bolts. 178
Square-Head Bolts Square-Head Bolts are used for all common connections, such as column flanges, beam connections, separator bolts, tie-rod bolts, etc. For lengths, sizes, and weights see table of Bo...
-Chapter XVII. Miscellaneous Details. Mail Chutes. Folding Gates. Box Slides. Hanging Ceilings
189. Mail Chutes Office buildings, apartment houses and hotels are now so generally provided with the U. S. Mail chutes, that some reference seems to be required to the limitations under which these ...
-2. Flitch-Plate Girders. Sidewalk Elevator. Wrought-Iron Gratings. Cast-Iron Perforated Plates. Knee Gratings
193. Flitch-Plate Girders In the floor framing of heavy buildings not fire-proof and where wooden girders occur resting on columns as shown in plate, the columns are some-times placed farther apart ...
-3. Galvanized Iron Cornices. Scuttle. Scuttle Ladder. Iron Fronts
198. Galvanized Iron Cornices Galvanized Iron Cornices are made of No. 22 to No. 28 gauge galvanized sheet iron, 22 being the heaviest. Mouldings of all sizes and shapes are soldered together, the ...
-4. Plain Fire Escapes. Brackets On New Buildings. Top Rails. Bottom Rails. Filling-In Bars. Stairs. Floors. Drop Ladders. The Height Of Railing. Ornamental Fire Escapes. Fire Escapes For Schools, Factories, Etc. Vault Cover And Frame. Cast-Iron Grating
202. Plain Fire Escapes Outside fire escapes should be placed on all dwelling houses over two stories in height, occupied or intended to be occupied by two or more families on any floor above the ...
-5. Strainers. Plain Wrought-Iron Bar Window Guards. Bridle Or Stirrup Irons. Chimney Cap. Cast-Iron Flue Door And Frame. Wrought-Iron Flue Door. Flue Ring And Cover. Chimney Ladder. Corrugated Iron
215. Strainers Strainers are made of cast iron 3/8 of an inch thick, and perforated with 1/4-inch holes as shown. They are used principally in areas at the entrance of area drain pipe, to protect it ...
-6. Galvanized And Black Iron. Finial And Cresting. Vault Lights. Wrought-Iron Guard. Dwarf Doors. Cast-Iron Wheel Guards. Fire Pipes. Mansard Roof
224. Galvanized And Black Iron The table opposite gives the weight in pounds per square foot of galvanized sheet iron, both flat and corrugated. The numbers and thicknesses are those of the iron ...
-7. Railings For Roof Protection. Pipe Railing. Corrugated Flooring. Tanks
232. Railings For Roof Protection In cities, where houses adjoin each other and have their roofs on the same level, the roofs are protected from thieves by wrought-iron picket railings made of 1/2-...
-8. Chains And Cables. Wirework. Cast-Iron Boiler Flues. Wrought-Iron Boiler Flues
236. Chains And Cables Every link of a chain has to transmit the whole strain to which the chain is subject, so that one faulty link renders the chain useless. To have a perfect chain, its strength ...
-Chapter XVIII. Finishing Iron And Steel
240. Bronzing Metals are bronzed by chemical agents or by the application of bronze powders. The latter are principally applied upon metals to imitate bronze. To give the object a gold bronze, ochre ...
-Chapter XIX. Specification
For the IRONWORK of................................. ...................................................................................................... To be erected................................
-Specification. Continued
Painting All ironwork cleaned of scales and dirt, and to receive one coat of best oxide of iron and pure linseed oil, and all pins, pin holes and machined surfaces to be coated with pure white lead a...
-Chapter XX. Tables. Average Weight, In Pounds, Of A Cubic Foot Of Various Substances
Aluminum,.... ...162 Anthracite, solid, of Pennsylvania,..... ...93 broken, loose,..... ..54 heaped bushel, loose,.... ..(80) Ash, Ame...
-Tables. Average Weight, In Pounds, Of A Cubic Foot Of Various Substances. Continued
Weight Per Foot Of Flat Iron (For weight per foot of steel add 2 per cent). Breadth in inches. THICKNESS IN FRACTIONS OF INCHES. 1/16 1/3 3/16 1/4 5/16 3...
-Chapter XXI. New York Building Law. An Act
To consolidate into one act and declare the special and local laws affecting public interests in the city of New York in so far as the same regulates the construction of buildings in said city.* S...
-New York Building Law. An Act. Part 2
Sec. 484. Framing Of Beams All cast-iron, wrought-iron, or wrought-steel columns shall be made true and smooth at both ends, and shall rest on iron bed-plates, and have iron cap-plates, which shall a...
-New York Building Law. An Act. Part 3
Fire-Proof Columns In all buildings hereafter erected or altered, where any iron or steel column or columns are used to support a wall or part thereof, whether the same be an exterior or interior wal...
-New York Building Law. An Act. Part 4
Girders To Be Tested Before any girder, as before mentioned, to be used in any building shall be so used, the architect or the manufacturer of or contractor for it shall, if required so to do by the ...
-New York Building Law. An Act. Part 5
Sec. 489. Smoke Flues Lined With Cast Iron In all buildings hereafter erected every smoke flue shall be lined on the inside with cast iron or well-burnt clay or fire-proof terracotta pipe from the bo...
-New York Building Law. An Act. Part 6
Dumb-Waiters, Skylights Over Elevators The foregoing requirement as to brick or fire-proof shafts shall include dumbwaiters which extend through more than three stories in dwelling-houses. The roofs ...
-New York Building Law. An Act. Part 7
Proscenium Wall Girder, Etc Above the proscenium opening there shall be an iron girder covered with fire-proof materials to protect it from the heat. There shall also be constructed a relieving arch ...









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previous page: The Architectural History Of Exeter Cathedral | by Philip Freeman, M.A.
  
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next page: Architectural Styles For Country Houses | Edited By Henry H. Saylor