This section is from the book "Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment Vol1", by G. A. T. Middleton. Also available from Amazon: Modern Buildings.
All timber except where otherwise specified is to be sound Baltic fir well seasoned, entirely free from large and loose knots and shakes; cut die square, not to contain more than 25 per cent. of sapwood, and to be of the scantlings given when finished. Cut timber into scantling lengths immediately after signing contract.
Unwrought timbers when fixed are to hold the full dimensions specified.
All exposed faces are to be wrought, except where otherwise described.
No joints or rafters are to be placed more than 12 in. apart.
Supply all necessary backings, grounds, fillets, moulds, templates, heads, woodbricks, slips, finishings, and fixings, and perform all necessary grooving, rebating, jointing, framing, and all work requisite throughout.
The ground-floor joists are to be 5 by 2 in. on 4 1/2 by 3-in. sleepers laid on the sleeper walls; first-floor joists 7 by 2 in. with trimmers and trimming joists 7 by 2 1/2 in., and the wall-plates 4 1/2 by 3 in-
Put one row of herring-bone strutting to first-floor joists wherever the span exceeds 6 ft.
Cover all wood floors with 7 by 1-in. wrought yellow boards rebated, tongued, and grooved, with glued and mitred margin to all hearths.
No timber is to be laid in the party walls dividing the cottages, but any wall-plates which would occur therein are to be carried on iron brackets cemented into the walls.
Form roofs with 4 by 2 1/2-in. rafters not more than 12 in. apart on 4 1/2 by 3-in. wall-plates, halved and spiked at angles and heading joints.
The ridge to be 7 by \\ in.
Trim roof to form gables with 4 by 2 1/2-in. rafters and 4 by 2 1/2-in. collars, and 7 by 1 1/2-in. ridge.
Form hip at end of roof as shown with 9 by 1 1/2-in. hip rafters.
Trim for clear opening 3 ft. 6 in. wide for dormers, form up side with 4 by 2-in. studs, 4 by 3-in. heads and sills, and 4 by 4-in. corner posts, and trim rafters to form roofs; those at the back to be hipped.
Cover the whole of the roofs and sides of dormers with 3/4-in. rough boarding, edges shot.
The true purlin of main roof is to project 9 in. at each end, and false purlins to be built in where directed, the ends being covered with a 9 by 2-in. wrought barge board.
Put 1 1/2-in. tilting fillets at eaves of main roof, gables, and dormers.
Fix 1 by 7-in. wrought deal beaded fascia screwed to ends of rafters.
Frame stud partitions with 4 by 4-in. sills and heads, posts, and lintels, and 4 by 2-in. studs placed not more than 12 in. apart, the whole to be mortised and tenoned together, and having two 4 by 2-in. nogging pieces as interties in height of storeys.
Form penthouse over front and back doors where shown on elevations to detail, with 3 by 2-in. rafters, plates, tiles, and curved brackets, wrought on all sides.
Unless otherwise specified, the sills to solid and cased frames are to be in English oak 11 by 3 in. sunk, weathered and throated, and built into brickwork 4 1/2 in. each end.
Fill in each window opening on ground floor with wrought deal-cased frames, with 1 in. grooved and beaded outside lining, 1-in. inside linings with 1 by 5/8-in. beading planted on, 1 1/4 in. twice rebated and grooved pulley style, with pocket piece for access to weights, and 3/8-in. parting beads, 2 in. twice rebated and grooved head lining, blocked out, with |-in. porting bead planted on, and beading planted on inside, 1/2-in. back linings, and 3/8-in. parting slips, and 3 in. sunk, weathered and throated oak sill as mentioned above, grooved for water bar with a checked out bead 2 in. deep planted on for ventilation.
Fill in each frame with 1 1/2-in. moulded double hung deal sashes, with ovolo-moulded sash bars rebated for glass, splayed bottom and meeting rails, with two moulded horns to each sash. Hang sashes with strong hemp line over brass-faced axle pulleys and balance with C.I. weights, and provide with sash fastener, list price 1s. 6d. each, to the architect's approval.
The larder windows to be 1 1/2-in. casements, opening inwards and hung with 2-in. W.I. butts to 4 1/2 by 3-in. solid rebated frame. Oak sill as above. Perforated zinc sheeting to be firmly secured to outside of frame, and the casement is to fasten with plain iron casement fastener and casement stay.
Fill in each window on first floor with solid wrought deal framing, having 4 1/2 by 3-in. beaded, rebated and water-hollowed frame, with 4 1/2 by 3-in. beaded and rebated head, and groved all round for lining, with 1 1/2 by 1-in. mould planted round on the outside; 4 1/2 by 3-in. twice rebated and twice beaded and twice water-hollowed mullions 6 in. by 3 in. quirk beaded, twice sunk, twice weathered waterhollowed and check throated oak sill, grooved for iron tongue and window board, and with 1 by 1/4-in. galvanised iron water tongue bedded in white lead. Fill in with 2-in. moulded casements with 2 by 1-in. moulded sash bars rebated all round for glass, with loose beads, brass cups and screws, and having rebated hanging styles, splayed, throated, and hollow grooved bottom rail 4 in. deep with 1/4-in. brass water bar screwed on, and rebated and beaded meeting styles with deal stop screwed on. Hang each casement on 3i-in. W.I. butts, and provide each leaf with two 6-in. barrel bolts, and one casement stay and one fastener to each casement.
Put 2 1/2 by 3/4-in. deal splayed grounds, with 3 by 1 1/2-in. moulded architrave mitred at angles to all doors and windows internally.
Form 7 by 3/4-in. torus moulded skirting to kitchen and parlour, and 5 by 3/4-in. plain skirting elsewhere, nailed to grounds.
The whole of the doors to be knocked up and stacked together at the beginning of the contract before being glued up.
External doors at back and w.c. doors to be framed, braced, and ledged, hung to 4 by 3-in. solid rebated wrought chamfered frames with 12-in. cross garnet hinges. Top rail and styles 6 by 1 1/4 in., bottom rail 9 by 1 1/4 in., lock rail 9 by \\ in., braces 4 by 1 in. Boards to be 3/4-in. V-jointed, grooved, and tongued, wrought on both sides in 5-in. widths.
Front doors to be 2 in., four-panelled and double moulded, with the upper panels rebated and prepared for glass, hung on 3-in. W.I. butts to 4 by 3-in. solid rebated wrought chamfered frames.
Internal doors to be 1 1/2 in., four-panelled and double moulded, hung by 3-in. W.I. butts to 1-in. linings, with 2 by 5/8-in. stops planted on. The linings are to be the full width of the brickwork and plastering combined.
Provide and fix weather boards to front and back external doors.
Provide and fix two tiers of 9 by 1-in. shelving, and one tier of 12 by 1 in., to pantries, on proper bracket bearers.
Fit up dresser where shown in kitchen, with central standards housed for 2-in. pot board, 2-in. dresser top with three drawers under same, and three tiers of shelving with narrow bead along front edge, and provide and fix two dozen brass hooks to edge of same.
Provide and fix draining board at side of sink in sculleries where shown.
The staircase to be formed with 1-in. treads with rounded nosings, and 3/4-in. risers properly glued, blocked, and housed into 1 1/4-in. wall string and 1 1/4-in. outer string.
The newels to be 4 by 4-in. pitch pine, with chamfered edges, and rounded and moulded heads; ballusters to be 1 by 1 in.; the handrail to be 3 by 2 1/2-in. birch with rounded top.
Provide 1-in. deal copper lid ploughed and tongued and having 1-in. ledge and handle, and to be well pinned with oak pins or nailed with copper nails.