Exactly the same system has been followed in each case, and can be followed in every other case.

## Square Piers

It is impossible to give to a 1-brick pier the characteristic appearance of Flemish bond, so they are always bonded in English bond. Larger piers are bonded as shown in Fig. 128. When an isolated square pier is built near other brickwork in single Flemish bond it should be bonded as shown in Fig. 128, as it is only its appearance which has to be considered.

Right-Angle Junctions of Cross Walls are formed by letting one course of the cross wall into the main wall, and butting the next course of the cross wall against the main wall, in a similar manner to that shown for English bond, save that three-quarter bats take the place of queen-closers, as shown in Fig. 129.

Fig. 128.

Fig. 129.

When cross walls are to be plastered there is no object in bonding them in Flemish bond, as appearance is then of no consequence, and strength is sacrificed by doing so.

## Cross Walls At Various Angles

An example of the junction of a cross wall in double Flemish bond is shown in Fig. 130, which it will be noticed is only a slight modification of the second case in Fig. 129.

## In Acute Squints

The quoin brick is first cut, as already explained in the previous Chapter, and placed in position. The facings are then laid, and the interior of the wall filled up as shown in Figs. 131 and 132. In the Flemish bonds it is often impossible to prevent the occurrence of small pieces, and when this is the case the angle should be built in cement, or a special angle brick should be made.

## Obtuse Squints

In these the quoin brick is shaped as explained with regard to English bond, and is laid first. The facings are then built on and the interior of the wall filled in. In angles of less than 112 degrees a closer must be used next to the quoin-header, for the reason already explained. Examples of these are shown in Figs. 133 and 134.

Fig. 130.

Fig. 131.

## Squint Piers With Plain Jambs

When squint piers are of small dimensions no definite system can be followed in bonding them, but they must be specially devised in each case. When the dimensions are comparatively large the universal method already explained may be used, as shown in Figs. 135 and 136. It will be noticed that in one example in Fig. 135 a closer has been used in order to prevent a joint coinciding with the external angle.

Fig. 132.

## Squint Piers With Rebated Jambs

Small piers with rebated jambs have to be devised for each particular case, but when their dimensions are large the system already explained may be employed as shown in Figs. 137 and 138. A closer is shown at the angle of one example in Fig. 138, to prevent a joint from occurring too near the angle.

5quint Piers with Plain Jambs in double flemish bond.

Fig. 135.

Squint Piers with Plain Jambs in Single Flemish Bond.

Fig. 136.

- is the name applied to a description of bond in which all the bricks are laid on headers. It is used for working round quick sweeps, as in Fig. 139. If stretchers be used for the purpose the curve has a broken appearance. This form of bond should never be used in straight work, as it is very weak, particularly in walls of an odd number of half-bricks in thickness, as it necessitates the use of half-bats.

Squint Piers with Rebated Jambs in Double Flemish Bond.

Fig. 137.

Stretching, or Stretcher Bond, is a description in which all the bricks are laid in stretchers, as in Fig. 140.

Fig. 138.

It is only used in walls of half-brick in thickness, such as partitions, the outer skins of cavity walls and walls to flues. It is due to its constant occurrence in the last position that the name Chimney Bond is frequently applied to it.

Garden-Wall Bond is the name given to a description of bond much used for 9-inch walls when a fair face is required on both sides. The name is sometimes applied to a wall composed of three or four courses of stretchers alternating with one of headers, as in Fig. 141,

Obtuse Squints in Double flemish Bond.

Fig. 133.

Fig. 134.

Header, Stretcher, and Garden-Wall Bond 105 but this variety of bond is more generally known as Facing Bond. In some localities the term garden bond is applied to walls built so as to show three stretchers and one header in each course, as in Fig. 142.

Fig. 139.

Fig. 140.

It is very difficult to build walls with a fair face each side in English or Flemish bond with ordinary bricks, as they vary considerably in length. When the number of headers is reduced they can be picked to an even length or cut if necessary.

Fig. 141.

Fig. 142.

The terms Boundary Wall, Sussex, Scotch, and Common Bond are local names for garden-wall bond.