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Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment. Vol1 | by G. A. T. Middleton



The First Volume deals with General Office Practice and Draughtsmanship in the first part, the Planning of Cottages and Country Houses in the second part, and with ordinary Constructional Details in the third part.

TitleModern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment Vol1
AuthorG. A. T. Middleton
PublisherThe Caxton Publishing Company
Year1921
Copyright1921, The Caxton Publishing Company
AmazonModern Buildings

Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment

By G. A. T. Middleton, A.R.I.B.A. Vice-President Of The Society Of Architects author of "building materials" "stresses and thrusts" "drainage of town and country houses" "The principles of architectural perspective" "Surveying And Surveying Instruments" Etc. Etc.

Assisted By A Specially Selected Staff Of Contributors

Profusely Illustrated

Vol. I

Part I. Office Practice And Draughtsmanship

Part II. The Planning Of Cottages And Country Houses

Part III. Ordinary Constructional Details

List Of Coloured Plates To Vol. I

Plate I. A Design for a Country House

II. A Design for a Country House

III. Arch Moulding of Door Hotel de Duc de Rouen St. Brieuc

IV. Sketch Design for a Row of Three Labourers' Cottages

V. House at Haslemere Surrey

VI. Queen Post Roof Truss

-Volume I. Part I Office Practice And Draughtsmanship. Chapter I. General Introduction
Many books have been published upon Building Construction, and many others, mostly of an historical character, upon the Planning of Buildings, but none, so far as I am aware, in which planning and con...
-Supplementary Introduction
Since the above words were written several months have elapsed, and now, on the eve of the production of the First Volume, it is possible to express my thanks to the many architects of note who have k...
-Chapter II. Drawing Instruments And Materials
For the proper production of architects' drawings it is essential to be provided with well-selected instruments and materials, in perfect adjustment, and properly arranged. An expert draughtsman will,...
-Drawing Instruments And Materials. Part 2
A T-square is likely, in careless hands, to have its working edge chipped or notched. It is then necessary to take the blade and cross-piece apart and have the edge reshot; but it is much better for t...
-Drawing Instruments And Materials. Part 3
Drawing Pins must be thin enough at the edges for the T-square to slip over them readily, and yet thick enough in the centre for the pin to be firmly attached to the brass head. If the head be of soft...
-Drawing Instruments And Materials. Part 4
The Pencils most used are H and F for small scale general drawings, and HB and B for details, but both harder and softer pencils are used occasionally. With regard to quality, it only need be said tha...
-Chapter III. The Preparation Of Working Drawings
[Contributed by R. W. Carden, A.R.I.B.A.) The subject of working drawings is one to which a draughtsman cannot give too much attention, for accurate plans and details are absolute essentials for the ...
-The Preparation Of Working Drawings. Part 2
All 1/2-inch details other than those just referred to are drawn in conjunction with the full-size details, and hold the same relationship to them that the 1/8-inch scale drawings do to the 1/2-inch d...
-The Preparation Of Working Drawings. Part 3
Most architects stipulate in the specification that on the completion of the work all drawings are to be returned by the builder. Whether this be done or not, all drawings referring to the completed b...
-The Preparation Of Working Drawings. Part 4
This chapter would not be complete without a few words on laying washes of colour. It is scarcely necessary to say that the first step must be to carefully clean up the drawing with indiarubber so as ...
-Chapter IV. Ornamental Lettering
There are few more fascinating parts of a draughtsman's business than that of lettering up his drawings, or designing the lettering to be placed upon the inscriptions which are frequently used upon bu...
-Ornamental Lettering. Part 2
Some workers of experience prefer a quill, but this is only to be recommended to those who know how to cut their own. It is not a difficult thing to do, but needs a little practice. Cut quills, as bou...
-Ornamental Lettering. Part 3
Bs Lead Flat Note. All Half Timber To Rough Axed And Stained Dark. The Horizontal Pieces Tv Be Tenoned Into The Vertical Pieces Amd Fillets To Be Nailed To Both. To Form Key For Portlandcement Concre...
-Chapter V. Surveying Existing Buildings
In all cases where alterations to existing buildings are required it is necessary to commence operations by making accurate plans of them, unless such exist and are accessible. To the uninitiated this...
-Surveying Existing Buildings. Continued
When a cross wall has no openings in it its thickness has to be ascertained indirectly, as shown in Fig. 26, where the sum of 2 ft. 4 in. and 3 ft. 2 in. is 5 ft. 6 in., and the difference of 10 1/2 i...
-Chapter VI. A Model Specification
The following specification has been prepared for the three cottages illustrated in Plate IV., which should be referred to from time to time as it is read. It is merely a suggestive model, upon which ...
-Excavator
Trenches Excavate the ground to the depths and widths required for the various drains and foundations according to plans; deposit where directed or cart away; part fill in and ram to all footings and...
-Bricklayer
Bricks The bricks for backing and internal walls are to be sound and well burnt yellow stock bricks; those for external facings to be picked stocks; and those for external facings of chimneys to be h...
-Carpenter And Joiner
Timber All timber except where otherwise specified is to be sound Baltic fir well seasoned, entirely free from large and loose knots and shakes; cut die square, not to contain more than 25 per cent. ...
-Ironmonger, Smith, And Founder
Range, Fire Grates, And Mantels Allow (price list) per cottage for range and fire grates (including iron mantels to grates), and provide for fixing same. Nails, Screws, Etc Provide all necessary ...
-Plumber
Lead All sheet lead is to be milled, uniform in thickness and free from sand cracks and other defects, and all pipes to be solid drawn and of the full weights specified. Joints And Unions All pipe ...
-Tiler
Tiles The plain tiles to be whole, even in thickness, square and free from cracks and blemishes. Hoofs Cover the whole of the roofs with approved red tiles, laid to a 3|-in. gauge, bedded in hydrau...
-Plasterer
Lime The lime is to be best white chalk lime, well slaked and screened. Hair All hair is to be best long black bullock's hair, well beaten and free from grease and dirt. Laths The laths are to be...
-Painter, Glazier, And Paperhanger
Ironwork Paint all ironwork two coats before and two coats after being fixed with good oil colour, finishing to selected tints, and black all latches, hinges, grates, etc. Woodwork Knot, stop, prim...
-Part II. Cottages And Country Houses. Chapter I. Workmen's Cottages
In presuming to write upon the principles which should underlie the planning of buildings, whether they be simple cottages or elaborate mansions or great cathedrals, it is necessary to disclaim any ri...
-Workmen's Cottages. Part 2
Fig. 34 illustrates a pair of cottages designed on these considerations to meet the requirements of a working man with the proverbial small income and large family, on the assumption that they face so...
-Workmen's Cottages. Part 3
In Fig. 37 the same type of plan as in Figs. 34 and 35 has again been used, but under less circumscribed conditions as to frontage and ground area, permitting it to be altered almost out of recognitio...
-Chapter II. Small Country Houses
Houses for the middle class differ from those of the working community in so marked an extent that an entirely different system of planning is necessary. Even in the smallest middle-class house the wo...
-Small Country Houses. Continued
Except with regard to the site, the problem presented by Broadmead on the Norfolk Broads, for which two distinct schemes are illustrated in Figs. 43 and 44, was of a very similar character. The hous...
-Chapter III. Large Country Houses
As houses are built of all sizes, to suit an infinite variety of conditions, it is difficult to classify them; but perhaps it will be generally conceded that a large country house is one in which extr...
-Large Country Houses. Continued
Fig. 47. On the first floor there are five large bedrooms, besides a smaller room such as would be suitable for a housekeeper or as an isolation room for illness; but there is only one dressing-roo...
-Chapter IV. Minor Points In House Planning
The last three chapters have dealt with the principal requirements of house plans - their aspects, the position and interrelation of the various rooms, and, in the case of the larger houses, the prope...
-Hall, Staircase, Bedrooms And Bathrooms
Whenever space permits the Hall should be screened from the entrance door by a vestibule, the entrance and vestibule doors opening inwards and all others outwards from it. Space has to be provided in ...
-Part III. The Construction Of A Building's Shell. Chapter I. Soils And Foundations
(Contributed by H. Y. Margary) Before the foundation of any building can be designed the nature of the soil on the site must be inquired into. Soils are practically infinite in their variety, both wi...
-Types Of Foundations
The types of foundation in general use may be classified roughly under the following heads: - 1. Natural Foundations. 2. Artificial Foundations. 1. Natural Foundation is the name applied to such as...
-Types Of Foundations. Part 2
Fig. 59. Fig. 60. The strength of such an arrangement, as shown in Fig. 62, depends in great measure upon the strength of the skewbacks. If these are made too small there is a tendency for the p...
-Types Of Foundations. Part 3
A formula which seems to give a satisfactory result while it agrees with practically every building which has not settled to any appreciable extent is given by Trautwine - Fig. 65. Safe load in ...
-Types Of Foundations. Part 4
(D) Consolidating Piles Some soils may be consolidated into homogeneous masses by driving in a number of piles all over a site. Such piles are called Consolidating Piles, and should not be driven c...
-Chapter II. Timbering To Excavations
When earth has been excavated to a considerable depth the vertical faces of the excavations need supporting by means of timber, to prevent the soil from falling in and injuring the workmen or the work...
-Timbering To Excavations. Continued
Fig. 77. Excavations To Pier Shafts When excavating for a shaft a hole is excavated as deep as possible without the earth falling in. Vertical sheeting from 9 by 1 inch to 9 by 2 1/2 inches, accor...
-Chapter III. Bond In Brickwork: English Bond
The manner in which bricks are arranged in a wall is obviously of great importance to the appearance and strength thereof. Thus in Fig. 81, which represents an angle of a 14-inch brick wall, it is cle...
-Bond In Brickwork: English Bond. Part 2
Now fill in the intervening spaces with headers, and one course of the brickwork will be complete. The next course of bricks is formed in exactly the same manner, by taking the bonding diagram and tur...
-Bond In Brickwork: English Bond. Part 3
22 1/2 wall. Fig. 88. 27 wall. Fig. 89. Fig. 87 shows alternate courses of bricks for a rebated jamb, with the reveal projecting 2 1/4 inches from the internal jambs. Reveals of 4!...
-Bond In Brickwork: English Bond. Part 4
Fig. 91. The simple modifications in the case of walls of an odd number of half-bricks in thickness should be noted. Fig. 92. Rectangular Piers These are practically formed like stoppe...
-Bond In Brickwork: English Bond. Part 5
It may be noted here, again, that the queen-closers at the angles are at right angles to one another. In Fig. 100 it has been found necessary to insert four bats to produce a satisfactory bond. Squi...
-Bond In Brickwork: English Bond. Part 6
Fig. 105. Fig. 103 also shows examples of obtuse squints formed by walls of various thicknesses meeting at various angles from 100 to 170 degrees, the shape of the quoins having been found by...
-Bond In Brickwork: English Bond. Part 7
Fig. 104. Fig. 107. Fig. 108. Squint Piers With Rebated Jambs Small squint piers with rebated jambs must be devised for each particular case, as shown in Fig. 109, but larger ones ma...
-Bond In Brickwork: English Bond. Part 8
Fig. 114. Fig. 115. Fig. 116. Fig. 117. Fig. 114 shows the diagonal work sloping in the opposite direction. A course of diagonal work is built into the wall at intervals of from three ...
-Chapter IV. Flemish Bond, Double And Single; Heading Bond; Stretching Bond, And Garden-Wall Bond
Double Flemish Bond The appearance of double Flemish bond is shown in Fig. 121, in which it will be seen that in each course headers and stretchers alternate, the face of the headers coming centrally...
-Flemish Bond, Double And Single; Heading Bond; Stretching Bond, And Garden-Wall Bond. Continued
Exactly the same system has been followed in each case, and can be followed in every other case. Square Piers It is impossible to give to a 1-brick pier the characteristic appearance of Flemish bond...
-Chapter V. Footings, Copings, Cornices, Corbels, Damp-Proof Courses, Hollow Walls
Footings As walls usually carry greater loads than would be safely borne by the same area of the soil upon which they rest, they are spread out at their base by projecting the courses in off sets of ...
-Brick Corbelling
Brickwork carried out from the face of a wall in projecting courses for the purpose of supporting a load such as that brought by a wall-plate, as shown in Fig. 145, or the end of a beam, is called Cor...
-Brick Cornices
Bricks by themselves are not suitable for cornices of very great projection, especially for cornices of the Classic type, though in conjunction with stone they lend themselves very well for this purpo...
-Damp-Proof Courses
It is of the greatest importance that dampness be excluded from the interiors of buildings, on account of its detrimental effect upon the health of the inhabitants. Damp can enter a building in any o...
-Vertical Damp-Proof Courses
Walls tarred, painted, or treated with any of the water-proofing liquids now on the market offer considerable resistance to the penetration of moisture. A more lasting method is to rake out the joint...
-Hollow Or Cavity Walls
In situations exposed to driving rains it is very usual to build walls in two thicknesses, to prevent water from soaking through and destroying the internal wall coverings and causing woodwork to deca...
-Dry Areas
Moist earth can also be prevented from coming in direct contact with basement walls by means of dry areas. Fig. 155 shows a simple form of dry area much used where rough slabs of stone or slate are av...
-Chapter VI. Flues And Chimneys
Chimneys are closed channels built of some incombustible material, and are used to cause the draught of air necessary for the proper combustion of fuel in the fireplaces below, and for carrying away t...
-Flues And Chimneys. Continued
Soot Doors are doors of iron which are let into the breasts of inclined flues to enable them to be swept properly. They are made in various sizes, but those less than 40 square inches in area should n...
-Chapter VII. Gauged Work - Arches - Brick-Cutting
When a neater appearance than that of ordinary brickwork is required, soft bricks of even texture, called Cutters or Rubbers, are used, which are cut and rubbed till their surfaces are so regular that...
-Gauged Work - Arches - Brick-Cutting. Part 2
Extrados Or Back The outer curve of an arch ring is called the extrados or back. The term back is also applied to the whole of the upper surface of an arch. Springing Points The extremities of the ...
-Gauged Work - Arches - Brick-Cutting. Part 3
Fig. 180. Fig. 181. Sometimes when the opening in a wall is small the lintel is cut on the upper side to the shape of the soffit of the arch, as in Fig. 181. The lintel is not intended to impar...
-Gauged Work - Arches - Brick-Cutting. Part 4
Fig. 183. Fig. 184. Fig. .85. Cutting The Voussoirs The bricks have now to be cut to the shape of the template, the operation of cutting being performed in the following manner: Th...
-Chapter VIII. Bricklaying
In building brick structures the bricks are usually bedded in mortar, the function of this mortar being threefold: - 1. It unites the bricks together by its adhesion to their surfaces, thus causing t...
-Bricklaying. Part 2
Face Joints In Brickwork A neat appearance is given to the mortar joint on the faces of walls either by Jointing or Pointing. Jointing In jointing, the mortar in which the bricks are bedded is simp...
-Bricklaying. Part 3
Fig. 187. Fig. 188. 2. The points H and J are determined as before, and the curve is set out by means of a wood template formed as shown in Fig. 189. This method is essential when the curve of t...
-Bricklaying. Part 4
Fig. 194. Whenever new work is bonded into old work the former should be built in cement mortar, to reduce the settlement to a minimum. As all buildings settle to a certain extent, it is better to ...
-Chapter IX. Terra-Cotta Work - Faience Work
Terra-cotta is the name applied to a material produced by burning any fine variety of clay which will vitrify upon the surface at a comparatively low temperature. The many advantages possessed by terr...
-Chapter X. Concrete Masonry
It is only in quite recent years that the custom of ancient Rome and Byzantium, of casting edifices in concrete, has come into use to any extent in England. Engineers have for a long time realised th...
-Chapter XI. Stone Walling
It is possible to classify all descriptions of walls under three heads, as follows: - 1. Rubble. 2. Block-in-cour.se. 3. Ashlar. 1. Rubble, on account of the variety of methods of coursing the sto...
-Stone Walling. Continued
The size of the stones should vary according to the heaviness of the building, and a clause governing this point is often inserted in the Specification, such as, No stone shall be more than 9 inches...
-Chapter XII. Rudimentary Masonry
(Contributed by W. Hooker) Note The Science of Masonry and Stone-Cutting will be treated at length in another Volume of this work, but it is thought advisable to introduce here a few remarks of an e...
-Rudimentary Masonry. Part 2
Quartyutg The best beds of the several varieties of stone are always specified for good work, the picked stone being reserved for moulded stones, arches, cornices, etc. The mode of getting the sto...
-Rudimentary Masonry. Part 3
Each course should be numbered consecutively by roman numerals, and the several stones in each course by arabic figures. These numbers should be marked on the stones when received from the quarry, and...
-Chapter XIII. Scaffolds And Gantries
Scaffolds are of two general descriptions, namely - 1. Bricklayers' Scaffolds. 2. Masons' Scaffolds. 1. The Bricklayers' Scaffold consists of five major members, namely - Standards, Ledgers, Putlogs,...
-Scaffolds And Gantries. Continued
It is best and safest to place the ladder communicating with the stages within the thickness of the scaffold, the upper stages being reached by a series of fairly short ladders. Long climbs are very f...
-Chapter XIV. Turning Pieces - Centres And Centering
In constructing arches the voussoirs are headed one upon another, commencing with the springers and building up towards the crown on either side, until the arch is finally completed by the insertion o...
-Turning Pieces - Centres And Centering. Continued
Fig. 238. Fig. 239. with pieces of timber cut to the required curve, spiked to the tops of them, as shown on the right-hand side of Fig. 239, which shows a good type of centre for arches with sp...
-Chapter XV. Shoring, Needling, And Under-Pinning
(By The Editor) Shores are temporary supports to walls and buildings, and are usually employed when these are in dangerous condition and likely to fall over. They are almost invariably constructed of...
-Chapter XVI. Terms Relating To Carpentry
The term Carpentry is taken in the present Volume, in its strictest sense, to represent the timberwork connected with the framing of roofs, floors, partitions, and other work of a purely constructio...
-Chapter XVII. Joints In Carpentry
It is a matter of considerable importance, in the framing of timber structures, to form each joint in such a manner that it may perform its particular office in the best possible manner. The functions...
-Lengthening Joints
Joints To Lengthen Ties And Struts Lapped Joint. - This joint is of a very clumsy appearance, and is only used in work of a temporary nature or in small timber framings hidden from view. It is formed...
-Joints For Supporting Beams On Plates Or Beams On Beams
Abutted Joint The simplest way of supporting a beam upon a wall-plate is by allowing the former to rest upon the upper surface of the latter, as at A, Fig. 254. Any tendency to dis-lodgment is preven...
-Connecting Joints
Joints For Connecting Struts With Ties Abutment Plate Joint. - This joint is formed, as shown at A, Fig. 264, by bolting a plate of wood on to the end of the tie against which the foot of the incline...
-Chapter XVIII. Wood Floors
The floors of small houses are usually constructed of wood, while in larger buildings, especially in factories or warehouses where heavy loads have to be carried, iron is used to a greater extent; whi...
-Wood Floors. Part 2
When the joists run at right angles to the fireplace the trimmed joists are carried on a trimmer, which is framed into two trimming joists on either side of the opening, as shown in Fig. 267. The pro...
-Wood Floors. Part 3
Sound-Resisting Floors With single-joisted floors, where the ceiling is fixed to the under side of the joists, sounds can penetrate from one room to another, and whenever this is undesirable some met...
-Wood Floors. Part 4
Fig. 271. Fig. 272A shows Morton's Valtor spring floor. This floor is supported upon girders which rest upon cast-iron supports, which in turn are supported upon stout springs. The object of...
-Chapter XIX. Partitions
The term partition is applied in carpentry to the frameworks of wood, with their coverings of lath and plaster or their filling of brick or concrete, which are used for dividing up floors into rooms...
-Partitions. Continued
Sills are used in all trussed partitions as a fixing for the lower ends of the posts and studs, while they tie in the braces, and in partitions supporting floors they perform the further function of b...
-Chapter XX. Timber Roofs
The surfaces of a roof may be inclined at practically any angle, varying from the almost horizontal to the almost vertical. The material with which the roof is covered generally decides this angle, wh...
-Timber Roofs. Part 2
Fig. 280. Pieces of timber are then cut to fit tightly between the rafters, to which they are securely spiked. These act as purlins, and are placed where shown in Fig. 282. The object of th...
-Timber Roofs. Part 3
Fig. 284. The feet of the principal rafters are inserted in cast-iron shoes, which are fixed to stone templates. Queen Post Truss When the span exceeds 30 feet a queen post truss is the most suit...
-Chapter XXI. Slates And Slating
Thin slabs of slate are perhaps the most common form of roof covering. They are cheap, easy to lay, and of good appearance. Slates may be obtained in practically any sizes, those best known being exhi...
-Slates And Slating. Part 2
Fig. 290. Eaves In slating, the work is always commenced at the eaves or lowest edge of a roof by laying a row of special cut small slates, called a Doubling Course. The length of the slate in thi...
-Chapter XXII. Tiles And Tiling
Tiles for roofing purposes consist of thin plates of vitrified clay, and are made in an infinite variety of shapes and sizes. They are usually of a red colour, but can be obtained in practically any s...
-Chapter XXIII. Lead, Zinc, Copper, And Asphalt Roofs
{Contributed by T. H. Bishop, A.R.I.B.A.) There are many circumstances which necessitate that roofs shall be flat, and covered with a material that is easy to handle and impervious to wet. Lead is ge...
-Asphalt Flats
Besides the three methods of covering flat roofs already described, there yet remains another method, that of covering them with asphalt. The advantages possessed by this material are economy, toughn...









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