This section is from the book "Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment Vol2", by G. A. T. Middleton. Also available from Amazon: Modern Buildings.
The most suitable wood for bath enclosures is mahogany, although sometimes the top only is made of this, the enclosure being of deal, painted or stained. Fig. 151 shows an enclosure in plan, section, and elevation. The framing is 1 1/4 inch, and is usually moulded in the solid. The external angle is sometimes formed square, but in good class work it should be rounded as shown. The front only is then rounded, the back being straight across the angle. The joints in top and bottom rails are butted and fixed by means of handrail screws. The inside edge of top should be slightly sunk, and fitted closely to the bath with a red and white lead joint.
Means of access to the trap end of the bath should always be provided. This is sometimes done by hanging the end panel on butts, which is all very well for inspection; but when any work has to be done, such as fitting a new trap, it is generally found inadequate. It is much better to have the front made in two parts, so that the two end panels, with framing, may be entirely removed and refixed without damage. This may be accomplished by having a double mounting in the centre.
If not cradled, the bath is carried on shaped wood bearers, a fillet being fixed to the wall to carry the top as shown, the outer edge being buttoned to the front. Fixing is provided by means of a fillet secured to the floor. Fig. 151 also shows the method of forming the top to the bath. The junction between the side and end of the top where the curved face occurs is formed by butting the two timbers and securing them by means of a hand-rail screw. The ends are fixed by fox-tail wedging or dovetail halving. The shoulders of the tenon joints are cut normal to the curve of the opening, so as to make a strong and neat joint to the rounded edges.
W.C. Enclosures are necessary with valve closets, but are now rarely used with any others. They are usually made to fill the entire space between the walls of the closet. The width is seldom great enough to necessitate ends.
The front or "riser" consists of a piece of rectangular framing filled in with one or two panels, usually only a single long one. The bottom rail is of extra thickness, and projects beyond the face to form plinth.
The seat is carried on two stout deal bearers wedged into wall at back, and dovetail tenoned to legs in front. These bearers are rebated to take the hanging rail, which is hung on brass butts let in flush with the surface. A hanging rail for flap is fixed on top of this, and must be set to such a position that the seat, when opened back on to the flap, lies quite flat upon it. A narrow skirting fixed round the wall and tongued into the top completes the fitting. Fig. 152 is a section showing the various parts and method of fitting.
The riser should not be fastened to the floor, but the bottom rail should be provided with two dowels fitting into holes in the floor. The top rail is tongued into the seat. The flap is finished with a moulding tongued to the front edge, that known as the "treacle" mould, having a double lip, being generally used, as it provides a good grip for the fingers when closing.
The hole in the seat is cut oval in shape, and in setting out is struck from four different centres as shown in the plan. The dishing is carried from the oval to a circular finishing.
No w.c. enclosure should be so fixed that it cannot be easily removed for access to the closet valve and trap. A plan sometimes adopted, and one to be commended, is that of having grooved guides fixed to the wall, into which the riser slides complete, so that, when the flap and seat are raised, the riser can be lifted right out and as easily replaced.
The modern pedestal closet requires no woodwork beyond a small seat and flap, and frequently a seat only. Various patterns of these seats are made, the ordinary kind with flaps being shown in Fig. 153. Both flap and seat are hung on butts, so that the seat when raised enables the pan to be used as a urinal. Where, however, the closets are in such situations as to be frequently required as urinals, a special seat without flap is fixed. This is shown in Fig. 154. It is fitted with a counter-balance weight, and so poised that, after use, the seat is very gradually raised by the action of the weight and turned back upon rubber stops. Rubber studs are inserted in the under side of all seats where they come in contact with the pan.
A useful addition to the fittings of a w.c. may be made in the form of a short hand-rail, placed within easy reach of the seat, so that it can be grasped and used by invalids or aged persons to enable them to rise. It may be made of hard wood to match the seat, or of brass carried on wood brackets.
A small box should also be fixed to the wall to contain toilet paper
Housemaids' Sinks are frequently provided on bedroom floors to take all slop water, and are sometimes fixed in a recess and hidden by a door, giving the appearance of a small cupboard. When constructed of wood they should in all cases be lead lined.
Ordinary sinks made of wood are framed together, as shown in Fig. 155. if or 2-inch stuff is used, and the joints should be put together with "Beaumont-ique," which is a mixture of white lead, boiled oil, litharge, and a little whiting made to the consistency of a very thick paint.
All exposed water or gas pipes should be covered with Pipe Casing, which is made of 3/4 or 7/8-inch boards, either rebated or tongued, and nailed together in the form of a shallow trough. It should be fixed to wall plugs or fixing bricks by means of screws, either through the sides themselves or through screw plates fastened to them so as to be readily taken down when required.
The external angles should have a return bead worked on. Where a number of pipes have to be covered, necessitating wide casing, the sides are secured to the wall by means of holdfasts, as shown in Fig. 156. The front is separate, framed and panelled, and fixed to the sides with screws having cups.
In positions where taps occur ready means of access must be provided. This is best accomplished by arranging a panel to come immediately over the taps, and hanging it on butts, fastening it with a small cupboard lock.