The Shoulder Plane is similar to the rebate plane, but is made of metal, has the iron set at a more acute angle, and is used for "trueing" shoulders after the saw.

Tools 97

Fig. 59.

The "Bullnose" (Fig. 59) is a small rebate plane having the iron close to the front, so that stop rebates may be worked close up to the stop.

The Compass Plane is a smoothing plane with a curved sole, so that curved surfaces, such as the soffits of segment headed frames, may be worked. It is provided with an adjustable boxwood nosepiece, so that the sweep may be altered. The American type of this plane has a spring steel sole, actuated by a screw, so that it can be made to fit either concave or convex surfaces.

The Chariot is a very small thumb plane with the iron reaching close to the front, and is used for cleaning off internal angles.

The Block Plane is like an enlarged smoothing plane with parallel sides similar to the jack. It is used in making joints and shooting mitres. The American pattern of this plane is of metal.

The Chamfer Plane has a sole formed to an internal right angle. It is used for forming chamfers, and has a movable block in the throat by which the depth of cut can be regulated.

The Moulding and Grooving Planes comprise - the Sash Fillister and Side Fillister, each provided with rising and falling stops and sliding fences. These two form a pair, for working on the off and near sides respectively, and are used for forming rebates or sinkings.

The Grooving Plane is used for cutting grooves across the grain. For this purpose it is provided with two cutters, a front or pilot cutter severing the cross fibre and preventing the edges of the groove being torn.

The Plough is an adjustable grooving plane, but only for cutting with the grain. It is provided with several different size irons, usually a set of nine.

The Side Rebate Plane has a vertical cutting iron, and is used for widening grooves.

The Router is used for deepening grooves and levelling the bottom of sinkings.

Bead Planes are used for working half-round mouldings or "Beads" on the edges of material; they run in sizes, by sixteenths of an inch.

Sash Planes are used for working the mouldings on sashes. There are several, each being named from the moulding which it works, - as "Ovolo Plane," "Astragal and Hollow Plane," etc.

The Hook-Joint Plane is made for forming the hook joint at the meeting styles of casement sashes.

Hollows and Rounds are used for forming either hollow or round members of mouldings. They are made in pairs for working either hand, and a complete set consists of eighteen.

The Snipe Bill and Side Snipe are narrow wedge-shaped planes, used in working mouldings under projecting members where other moulding planes will not reach.

Nosing and Scotia Planes are, as their name implies, for working the nosings and scotias on stair treads.

Tools 98

Fig. 60.

A tool of somewhat similar action to the plane is the Spokeshave (Fig. 60), which is used for smoothing edges of quick sweep. The iron type, with screw adjustment of the blade, is an improvement on the old wooden form.

Chisels are made in a variety of patterns, each pattern suited to a particular purpose, and having a wide range of sizes, in some from \ inch up to 2 inches.

Tools 99

Fig. 61.

The Paring Chisel (Fig. 61) has a long, thin blade, and is used for paring surfaces, and, except when very narrow, has bevelled edges.

The Firmer Chisel has a shorter blade, and stouter, and is used with a mallet.

Tools 100

Fig. 62.

The Framing Firmer Chisel (Fig. 62), a still stronger make, usually has a ferrule at the end of the handle, so that it may be struck with the framing hammer without splitting.

The Mortise Chisel is a thick stiff tool used for cutting mortises.

Tools 101

Fig. 63.

The Sash Chisel (Fig. 63) is a long narrow chisel, used for mortises in sash bars.

Tools 102

Fig. 64.

The Sash Pocket Chisel (Fig. 64) is a thin wide chisel, used for cutting pulley-style pocket pieces.

The Drawer Lock Chisel is a double-ended all-steel tool for cutting mortises in confined position.

The Plugging Chisel is an all-steel chisel, used for driving into the joints in brickwork previous to inserting wood plugs for fixing.

Tools 103

Fig. 65.

The Firmer Gouge (Fig. 65) is a hollow-faced chisel, having the ground bevel or "Basil" on the round side.

Tools 104

Fig. 66.

The Scribing Gouge (Fig. 66) differs only in having the basil on the inner or curved side.

The Draw Knife might be called a two-handled chisel. It is drawn towards instead of being pushed from the workman as in the case of other chisels, and its use is for paring down edges or angles where there is too much to plane off and not enough to saw.

Boring Tools of a variety of patterns and a number of sizes of each pattern are also required.

Tools 105

Fig. 67.

The Bradawl (Fig. 67) is used for making holes in order to prevent nails or brads splitting the wood. It has a sharp chisel point, and is pressed into the wood with the edge across the grain.

Tools 106

Fig. 68.

The Gimlet (Fig. 68) is used for making holes for screws. It is screwed into the wood and cuts a hole, removing the core. It is made in two patterns, "twist" and "shell." For larger holes a Brace and Bit is used. Of the several type of braces the two most generally used by joiners are the wooden stock, plated, and the iron stock with ratchet (American). The brace is worked by gripping its head with the left hand, and the hand pad with the right, and turning from left to right. The necessary pressure for driving the bit is obtained by the operator pressing either his head or chest on the left hand, the former usually for upright and the latter for horizontal boring. The ratchet attachment is useful in positions where there is not room to swing the hand pad completely round. By throwing the back stroke out of gear the bit may be driven by swinging the brace backward and forward in short strokes.