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Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment. Vol2 | by G. A. T. Middleton



Its first part is devoted to Town Houses of all descriptions, its second to Specification Writing and Quantity Surveying, and its third part to Domestic Finishings and Fittings.

TitleModern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment Vol2
AuthorG. A. T. Middleton
PublisherThe Caxton Publishing Company
Year1921
Copyright1921, The Caxton Publishing Company
AmazonModern Buildings

Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment

By G. A. T. Middleton, A.R.I.B.A. Vice-President Of The Society Of Architects author of "building materials" "stresses and thrusts" "drainage of town and country houses" "The principles of architectural perspective" "Surveying And Surveying Instruments" Etc. Etc.

Assisted By A Specially Selected Staff Of Contributors

Profusely Illustrated

Vol. II

Part I. Town Houses, Shops, And Offices

Part II. Specification Writing And Quantity Surveying

Part III. The Constructional Finishings Of A Building

-Part I. Town Houses, Shops, And Offices. Chapter I. Terrace Houses Without Basements
There is much less scope for originality and diversity of plan in small town houses than in those erected in the country. The limiting conditions are very severe, especially if one takes the term Tow...
-Terrace Houses Without Basements. Continued
With a less increase of the frontage over that to which Fig. I is limited it is quite possible to produce a better plan; and a further modification is shown in Fig. 3, which is devised for a 22-feet f...
-Chapter II. Large Town Houses
The separation between the family and the servants, which is so easily managed in large country houses by extending over a large area, has to be secured by quite different means in the streets of grea...
-Chapter III. Semi-Detached Houses
Semi-detached houses partake about equally of the characteristics of separate houses such as were dealt with in the First Volume of this book, and of terrace houses. They generally occupy a comparativ...
-Chapter IV. Workmen's Dwellings And Small Flats
The difficulty of providing satisfactory houses for the working classes in large cities, where the value of ground is considerable, at a rental within the workman's means, has led to the development o...
-Chapter V. Middle-Class Flats
It is only in comparatively recent times that it has become common in England to provide town dwellings for the middle classes in the form of flats; but now comparatively few separate houses are built...
-Middle-Class Flats. Part 2
Fig. 17. One of the principal objections to flats is that the smell of the cooking permeates the whole of the house, but this is here well provided against by the construction of large halls betwee...
-Middle-Class Flats. Part 3
Fig. 19. Marlborough Chambers, Jermyn Street, designed by Mr. Reginald Morphew, and illustrated in Fig. 20 and Plate II., show a somewhat similar scheme of living as adapted to English needs. The g...
-Chapter VI. Offices And Shops
There is a certain similarity between the planning of offices and the planning of flats when the offices are upon a large city scale, arranged in suites served by a common lift and staircase. The prin...
-Part II. Specification Writing And Quantity Surveying. Chapter I. Specification For A Draper's Shop
(Anonymously Contributed) The following Specification is started at Excavator, but should of course be preceded by such extracts from the General Conditions as might either directly or indirectly a...
-Excavator, Bricklayer, And Drains
Provide for keeping all excavations clear of water by baling, pumping, or otherwise. Level And Ram Level and ram the bottoms of all excavations to receive concrete. Shoring Provide all requisite s...
-Facings
Face the external walls except the front wall with picked stocks as described. Arches Turn neatly axed segmental arches over all external reveals except to front. Oversailing Oversail as shown at ...
-Glazed Brick Facings
The internal faces of walls of w.c.'s, lavatories, and bathrooms to be faced with first quality white glazed bricks as described, laid in Flemish bond in cement mortar with fine joints. Half-Brick Pa...
-Drains
The drain pipes to be Doulton's best tested socketed glazed stoneware pipes sound and straight, the joints made with neat Portland cement, and each joint cleaned off before the next one is made. Th...
-Mason. Stones
Stone The stone throughout to be the best and hardest of its respective kinds, free from every defect, and to be laid on its natural bed and jointed in cement, with all requisite slate dowels, double...
-Portland Stone
The Portland stone to be the best selected Whitbed, free from clay or sandholes, black fossils, or other defects. Front The whole of the front is to be faced with Portland stone, as described, worke...
-York Stone
The York stone to be from the Idle quarries, and of the hardest description. Steps And Thresholds Put to all external doorways, except the shop entrances, rubbed top and front edge and back jointed ...
-Tiler
Tiling Cover the roofs with hard well burnt Broseley plain tiles from an approved maker, sound, true to shape and even in colour, laid to a 4-inch gauge on and including 3/4 by 2-inch battens, and se...
-Carpenter
Timber And Deals The fir and deals for carpenter's work to be the best well-seasoned red fir, free from sap, shakes, waney edges, large, loose or dead knots or other defects. All timbers to be sawn ...
-Joiner And Ironmonger
The deals and battens for the joiner's work are to be the best yellow, thoroughly well seasoned, free from sap, shakes, large, loose, or dead knots or other defects. All other timbers hereafter menti...
-Skirtings and Floors
Lay the third and attic floors with 1-inch best yellow deal batten flooring, laid straight joint with splayed headings well cramped up and nailed with cut brads to 3 by 2-inch splayed fillets embedded...
-Sashes And Frames
Skylight Put to area over second floor 2 1/2-inch moulded and hipped bar skylight prepared for Grover's simplex lead-glazing slips; to have 1 1/2-inch rolls for lead bird's-mouthed on to ridge and hi...
-Doors And Framings
All basement doors to be 2-inch framed and braced filled in with 3/4-inch V-jointed, grooved, and tongued boarding in narrow widths, the doors to be each hung on one pair of 4-inch wrought-iron butts,...
-Constructing Stairs
Frame the main stairs from shop to showroom in teak with 2-inch treads with moulded nosings and 2-inch risers rebated and screwed together, glued, blocked, and bracketed on and including 4 1/2 by 3-in...
-Smith And Founder
Iron The iron, both cast and wrought, and the rolled steel to be of the best quality and brands approved by the architect; and, except where bedded in concrete, to be painted two coats of granitic ox...
-Cast Iron
Eaves Gutters Provide and fix to eaves 5 by 4-ihch stout cast-iron moulded eaves gutters, No. in Messrs. 's catalogue, with all requisite angles, stopped ends, spigot outlets, etc., and jointed in re...
-Wrought Iron
Chimney Bars Provide and fix to all chimney openings 2 by 3/8-inch cambered chimney bars caulked up and down at ends. Rolled-Steel Joists Provide, hoist, and fix the rolled-steel joists of the vari...
-Electricity
Electric Bells Provide the sum of * nett for electric bells to be expended under the direction of the architect, or deducted in whole or part from the amount of the contract. Electric Lighting Pro...
-Hot-Water Engineer
Pipes The pipes to be the very best strong galvanised wrought - iron steam piping of approved make, with all necessary short lengths, elbows, reducing sockets, T's and X's, bends, etc. (bends to be u...
-Plasterer
Sand The sand to be clean, sharp and free from all impurities, and washed if required. Lime The lime to be approved fat lime, that for the setting coat to be run into putty at least one month befor...
-Tile Mason
Lay the floors of scullery, bathrooms, w.c.'s, and lavatories, and wherever coloured red on plans, with approved red paving quarries, including all cutting and fitting. Lay the hearth coloured red wi...
-Plumbing Work
The lead to be of the best description known as milled lead, to hold the full weights specified and to be free from all defects, to be laid in the best manner and well dressed down in valleys, gutters...
-Water Services
Supply Open up roadway, etc., drill Company's main, fix 1-inch brass ferrule and lay 1-inch lead main from Company's main to front wall laid in rough deal trough and covered with pitch, and make good...
-Fittings
Lavatories Provide and fix in lavatories white enamelled stoneware basins with hot and cold cocks and waste complete, including cast-iron brackets, p.c. each set, and add for profit, carriage, and fi...
-Glazier
Glass The glass to be of the best description of its respective kinds, free from all waves and air globules, and to be bedded in putty and back puttied and sprigged in. All edges of plate glass to b...
-Painter And Paperhanger
The colours, white lead, and oil to be of the best description, and free from adulteration. All woodwork to be carefully knotted and stopped, and all. work to be well rubbed down between each coat. ...
-Paperhanger
The paper to be English of the best quality, hung in a workmanlike manner with a butt joint. Size and prepare walls, and hang with papers of the following p.c. values:- ...
-Chapter II. Quantities: General Principles And Sequence
(Contributed by W. H. Brown, F.S.I.) The preparation of a Bill of Quantities consists of three operations, known as Taking off, Abstracting, and Billing, and in this and the following chapters ...
-System No. 2
Preliminaries. Surface digging. Basement digging. Basement trenches. Concrete. Footings. Damp course. Brickwork to G.F. level. Surface trenches. Concrete. Footings. Damp course. Brickwork ...
-System No. 2. Continued
Kene's cement angles. Quirk. Double quirk bead. Fair point and twice lime-white. Floors and Skirtings (beginning at the top floor). Flooring. Deductions. Glued and mitred margins. Flooring and be...
-Chapter III. Quantities: Taking-Off Carcase
(Contributedby W. H. Brown, F.S.I) The dimensions should be started by notes of the Preliminaries. These will consist of such items (some of them contained in the Conditions) as either have a direc...
-Quantities: Taking-Off Carcase. Part 2
Breasts Having measured all the common brickwork (except garden and fence walls, which may be conveniently measured all together as the last item under common brickwork), start with the chimney breas...
-Quantities: Taking-Off Carcase. Part 3
Cement Weatherings And Fillets Measure these per foot run immediately after the cornices or mouldings on which they occur. Include the mitres, etc. Plinth Measure the projection for plinth per foot...
-Fireplace Openings
Deduct the brickwork for opening. Chimney Bar Measure per foot run, and state size. Weigh out on abstract, and bill in cwts. Relieving Arch Number as Extra labour, cutting and waste to rough segm...
-Window Openings
Deduct Brickwork in External Reveals, the width by the height from top of stone sill to head. Deduct Facings, same dimensions as last. Add Facings for reveals the width by the height of reveals. Ar...
-External Door Openings
The items under this heading will be the same as to window openings, and the same remarks will apply; except that in the place of the window sill and weather bar there will be a step or threshold. St...
-Internal Door Openings
The remarks as to Window and External door openings will apply generally, and the same order should be followed, with the following exceptions:- There will be no stone step, and no fair arch in a...
-Mason. Stonework
All stonework, except steps and thresholds and ordinary sills and heads, such as are usually measured at the time of deducting the brick openings, may be conveniently measured now. There are two prin...
-Mason. Stonework. Continued
Plain Work Or Plain Face Measure per foot super. to all plain surfaces exposed to view, and the kind of finish stated in the description. Plain work under 3 inches wide is measured per foot run and t...
-Rubble Walling
This, if executed in the district in which the stone is found, is usually measured in accordance with local custom, which varies considerably. In London it is measured per yard super. up to and includ...
-Constructional Iron And Steel Work
Cast-Iron Columns And Stanchions Measure per foot super. State thickness of metal and weight out on Abstract. Make an allowance for featherings. This must be judged; as, for instance, a cast-iron col...
-Floors
Fender Walls Half-brick fender walls are measured per foot super, and not reduced. The Digging, Concrete, and Footings to Fender Walls measured as previously described. Damp Course As before descr...
-Roofs
Wall-Plates as previously directed, and all billed together. Rough Oversailing For Wall-Plates The projection is measured per foot super., the length by the height and the projection or average proj...
-Ceiling Joists
Wall-Plates See previous description. Joists Measure per foot cube, and describe as Fir framed ceiling joists. If of small scantling they maybe taken per foot run. Trap Doors These may now be n...
-Deduct Lath And Plaster Ceiling
Labour to Quirk - Measure per foot run. Slating, Boarding, and Felt are measured together, but abstracted and billed separately. Measure the length of the roof by the length on slope, and notice that...
-Chimney Stacks. Deduct Rafters
Add for Trimmer Rafters, - their length by their extra thickness by their depth. These may be taken off, run, and cubed on the Abstract as previously described. Add for Trimmers per foot cube. Rememb...
-Deduct Plaster Ceiling. Add Plaster Quirk
Lantern Lights The deductions and additions of roof timbers, slating, boarding, and felt, and items of gutters, flashings, etc., will be as previously described to Skylights, and the roof of Lantern ...
-Copper Nailing To Lead Aprons. Trap Doors
Deductions and additions to main roof as to Skylight, etc. Curb See Curb to Skylight. Lead Covering to Curb is billed by weight, and kept separate. Allow 3 inches for passings and 6 inches at angle...
-Lead Flats
Rough Oversailing, as previously directed. Wall-Plates, as before directed. Joists Measure and bill as Fir framed in roofs. Boarding And Firrings To Falls Measure per foot super., and billed in...
-Partitions
Measure the timbers per foot cube, the tenons to be measured in. It will often be convenient to measure per foot run, and cube on the Abstract as explained for floors. Bill as Fir framed in quarter p...
-Chapter IV. Quantities: "Taking-Off" Finishings. Plastering And Paper
(Contributed by W. H. Brown, F.S.I.) Ceilings Measure per foot super., and bill in yards, and describe as Lath plaster, float, and set ceilings, or as the case may be. The same dimension answers f...
-Floors And Skirtings
Flooring - Measure nett per foot super., and bill in squares of 100 feet super., and describe. Cuttings are measured to all raking edges. Some surveyors allow the length by 3 inches for these, but it...
-Windows
Double-Hung Sashes Refer to the dimensions of Window Openings. Sashes And Frames Measure these per foot super. The dimensions will be the same as the brick deductions for internal reveals. Fully de...
-Deduct Plaster And Paper Or Distemper, Etc
Linings up to 9 inches in width are better measured per foot run. Over that measure per foot super., and state that they are cross-tongued, and fully describe the labours on them. Include backings in ...
-Deduct Plaster
Linings, Architraves, Window Nosings, or Window Boards and Arch Boards. See p. 70, ante. ...
-External Doors
Fanlight Measure per foot super. Glass As before described. Ironmongery As before described. Door Measure per foot super., and fully describe. State thickness, and in how many panels, etc. If a...
-Internal Doors
Door, Glass, Hinges, And Furniture Measure as previously described. Linings Measure per foot run or per foot super. De rcribe as 1 1/2-inch wrought double rebated jamb linings, tongued at angles a...
-Stairs
Treads And Risers Measure per foot super. State their respective thicknesses, how put together, and, if prepared for close or cut strings, include the rough fir carriages and state their scantlings. ...
-Tongued And Rounded (Or Moulded) Nosings To
Edge Of Landings Measure per foot run as extra on flooring. Number the quadrant corners (state radius) and fitted ends. Keep circular portions separate. If small, these may be numbered, and their len...
-Using Fittings
Shelving Measure per foot super. Describe as cross-tongued if over 9 inches wide. Include bearers in the description, and state their size, if chamfered and if plugged. This only means the bearers ag...
-Wood Sinks
Sides Measure per foot super. State thickness, and describe as dovetailed. State if cross-tongued, if wrought both sides, and if prepared for lead. Bottom Measure per foot super. State thickness. D...
-Lavatories
Basins Complete With Valves And Wastes These are generally selected from a trade list. If in a range, the cast-iron underframes will also most probably be supplied with them. The top may or may not b...
-Baths
Bath Number the baths complete, with valves and waste. State number in trade catalogue (or give p.c. value, and add profit and carriage); and include fixing and all connections to pipes. Deal Cradle...
-Water Closets
Apparatus Number this complete. State name of manufacturer and catalogue number, or p.c. value, the description to run and add profit, carriage, and fixing complete. Include the joints in the descr...
-Water Supply
Cisterns These are now usually of galvanised wrought iron, and should be numbered and fully described, stating capacity, thickness of metal, and how put together. Describe the angle-iron stiffeners a...
-Hot-Water Service
Cylinder Number, and fully describe, including the flanged and riveted connections for pipes. State capacity in gallons. Include T-iron bearers cut and pinned to walls, and fixing complete. Lead Sup...
-Gasfitter
The gas company make the connection to their main, and carry the piping to the front boundary of the property, so that all work up to that point is usually embodied in a clause somewhat as follows:- ...
-Bellhanger
Although the old bells and pulls are now almost entirely superseded by electric bells, a brief description of their measurement will be given. The Preamble should contain a description of the bells, ...
-Electric Bells
Describe fully the bells, wiring, indicators, battery, etc., in the Preamble, and state that the wiring is to include wood casings where requisite. Number the Bells, stating size and position; and how...
-Painting
Measure all painting, with the following exceptions, per foot super., and bill in yards. State that it includes cutting in edges, or measure this per foot run. Make the following additions to the figu...
-Chapter V. Squaring, Collecting, And Abstracting
(Contributed by W. H. Brown, F.S.I.) Having completed the Taking-off, the dimensions should be squared and entered in the squaring column in black ink. The squaring should then be checked by anot...
-Squaring, Collecting, And Abstracting. Part 2
The person who checks the squaring should also carefully check all calculations on waste, and see that the results are correctly carried to the dimension column. The following example (Fig. 33), shows...
-Squaring, Collecting, And Abstracting. Part 3
Billed direct from Specification, or Billed direct as usual. If some items have been entered on the dimensions, abstract these and then make a note, Remainder billed direct from Specification, o...
-Mason
Divide the Mason's Abstract into sections for the different kinds of stone; observe the regular order of Cubes, Supers, Runs, and Numbers. Fig. 40. Where stone is billed as stone and labour, com...
-Slater Or Tiler
In these trades the general rules previously given will apply. Slater and Slate Mason usually form one bill, but a separate heading should be made both on Abstract and Bill. ...
-Carpenter Rules
The rules previously given will apply to this trade. Under the cubes the several headings will be Fir in plates and lintels, Fir in ground joists and sleepers, Fir framed in floors, Fir framed ...
-Joiner And Ironmonger Bill
Enough has already been said respecting the previous trades on the general principles of abstracting, and it will now only be necessary to notice the particular subdivisions of the remaining trades, t...
-Ironmonger
The items in this trade are mostly numbered. Keep iron and brass separate. Abstract and bill ironmongery fixed to hard wood under a separate heading. Make headings of the various items, embracing a su...
-Founder And Smith
Keep cast iron, wrought iron, and steel separate. Abstract all items of roof trusses under a separate heading. Fig. 44. Commence under each heading with the items that are weighted out, those of l...
-Gasfitter And Bellhanger
Both these will be short Abstracts. The rules previously given will apply. ...
-Plumber
Keep External and Internal work separate. External Plumbing Abstract the items to be billed by weight first. Lead in flats, gutters, valleys, and flashings are abstracted and billed together, and wi...
-Plasterer Bill
Abstract and bill each kind of plaster under a separate heading in the order of Supers, Runs, and Numbers, starting each with the items of least value. Keep external work separate, and bill it last u...
-Glazier Bill
Abstract and bill the various descriptions of glass under separate headings according to value; for example:- Fig. 47. ...
-Painter Bill
See Taking-off for the different methods of dealing with this trade. Keep the various descriptions of painting separate in order of value. ...
-Paperhanger Bill
Abstract and bill the various papers according to value, the cheapest first. The Abstract having been completed and checked, it has to be reduced; that is, the columns of figures must be added up, ...
-Chapter VI. Billing
(Contributed by W. H. Brown, F.S.I.) The Bill may be continuous - that is, all trades may be bound together in one document, the total of each trade being carried to a Summary at end; or each trade m...
-Estimate
For proposed house and stables at Chiddingstone, Kent, for Frederick Keen, Esq. William Square, Architect, 216 Bedford Row, March 7905. London, W.C. When the work is divided into several separate Bi...
-Bill No. R. General Conditions And Preliminaries
Under this heading should be placed, first of all, such clauses of the General Conditions as may either directly or indirectly affect the cost, and other important conditions, such as the clause setti...
-Bill No. 2. Excavator, Bricklayer, And Drains
Provide for keeping all excavations clear of water by baling, pumping, or otherwise, and include for all necessary planking and strutting to excavations and trenches. Note When planking and struttin...
-Facing Costs
All extras are extra only beyond the cost of rough brickwork first measured, unless otherwise described. Each kind of facing should then have its own heading, followed by a description of the brick...
-Abbreviations Adopted On The Dimension And Abstract Sheets
The following is a list of the usual abbreviations adopted on the Dimension and Abstract sheets:- General A.b. . as before. b.s. . both sides. Ct. . . Cement. Circ. . Circular. Co. . Course. Ddt...
-Part III. The Constructional Finishings Of A Building. Chapter I. Joinery Woods, Tools, And Methods Of Working
(Contributed by H. Kennard) The art of Joinery is that of converting timber from its rough state into the various fittings and finishings required to complete a building. In bygone years the joiners'...
-Woods
Woods are classified for all practical purposes into two divisions - Soft Woods and Hard Woods. Soft Woods are generally used for all work which is to be painted or stained, and hard woods for polish...
-Terms
Before entering into a description of the different tools used by joiners, and the various joints employed by them, the following is a list of some of the terms and shop colloquialisms in general use:...
-Tools
The number of tools required by the joiner to enable him to deal with all the various kinds of work which come under his hand is by no means small, and when to the list of those which he can purchase ...
-Tools. Part 2
The Shoulder Plane is similar to the rebate plane, but is made of metal, has the iron set at a more acute angle, and is used for trueing shoulders after the saw. Fig. 59. The Bullnose (Fig. 59...
-Tools. Part 3
Fig. 69. The different bits (see Fig. 69) used are - the Centre Bit, used for boring across the grain; Twist Bit, Shell Bit, Nose Bit, Spoon Bit, and Taper Bit, sometimes called a Shell Rimer. Patt...
-Tools. Part 4
The Bench Screw, which is fixed near the end for holding the work, is sometimes of the old-fashioned pattern with wood screw and chock, but the type now generally used is the Instantaneous grip with...
-Tools. Part 5
Fig. 87. In making joints with long boards the method of procedure is as follows: - The edges having been shot true and out of winding and ploughed, one board is fixed in the screw, and the tongues...
-Chapter II. Skirtings, Dados, And Panellings
(Contributed by H. Kennard) It is customary to fix round the walls of all rooms, halls, passages, etc., a finishing of some description, in order to cover the angle of junction between wall and floor...
-Skirtings, Dados, And Panellings. Part 2
A simple and effective variation on the horizontal dado may be formed with hard-wood base and skirting, having a capping to match, filled in with pitch-pine tongued, grooved, and V-jointed match - boa...
-Skirtings, Dados, And Panellings. Part 3
Fig. 99. Fig. 100. Frieze is the name given to that portion of the wall which occurs immediately below the cornice, down to the picture rail or capping of framing. When made entirely of wood, fr...
-Chapter III. Doors And Framings
(Contributed by H. Kennard) Doors are made in a variety of forms, and are classed under various heads, according mainly to their method of construction. Custom has, however, fixed upon certain doors,...
-Doors And Framings. Part 2
Fig. 114. Fig. 115. Skeleton Jamb Linings Another kind is known as Skeleton Jamb Linings, in which a skeleton framework is formed, and a single board, forming the stop, is nailed on the face ...
-Doors And Framings. Part 3
The simplest form of this kind is the four-panel square sunk door. This means a door having a framework consisting of two styles, top, bottom, and middle or lock-rails and two muntings, all with squar...
-Doors And Framings. Part 4
Fig. 126. Fig. 127. Fig. 128. Where openings are too wide to be fitted with one door, Double Doors, or a Pair of Doors are fixed. These are constructed separately as single doors, and t...
-Chapter IV. Windows, Framings, Etc
(Contributed by H. Kennard) Although there are numerous forms and varieties of windows, they may, generally speaking, all be classed under one of two heads: Sash Windows and Casements, the framin...
-Windows, Framings, Etc. Part 2
Fig. 134. Fig. 135. The sashes in solid frames may be hung in several ways. The lower sashes are usually hung by the styles on butts, and to open either outward or inward as desired. This is cal...
-Windows, Framings, Etc. Part 3
Skylights are sashes fixed in the roof, following the same slope as the roof. Their exposed position necessitates careful construction and fixing in order to avoid the risk of leakage. To form the ope...
-Windows, Framings, Etc. Part 4
Fig. 143. Shutters The custom of fitting shutters to all windows is not so common now as formerly, especially in the case of the Boxing, or more correctly Folding, Shutters (see Fig. 144). The...
-Chapter V. Cupboards, And Bath And W.C. Enclosures
(Contributed by H. Kennard) Where it is desired to form a cupboard in a recess it is sometimes done by closing the opening with framing, in which a door is hung, either carried right up to the ceilin...
-Cupboards, And Bath And W.C. Enclosures. Continued
The most suitable wood for bath enclosures is mahogany, although sometimes the top only is made of this, the enclosure being of deal, painted or stained. Fig. 151 shows an enclosure in plan, section, ...
-Chapter VI. Stairs And Stair-Building
(Contributed by H. Kennard) The setting out and constructing of stairs, including all requisite hand-railing, is one of the highest branches of Joinery, if not the highest. It embraces work far beyon...
-Stairs And Stair-Building. Part 2
Ballusters Vertical pieces fixed between hand-rail and string, or hand-rail and treads, as the case may be. Hand-Rail The moulded rail fixed on top of ballusters, with them completing the ballustra...
-Stairs And Stair-Building. Part 3
Various rules have been laid down for determining the rise and going of steps, with the object of securing each of the correct proportions. They are governed by the theory that the energy required for...
-Stairs And Stair-Building. Part 4
Open Newel Stair Fig. 166 shows a sectional elevation of an open newel staircase, consisting of three short flights and two quarter-space landings. Reference is made to the various parts illustrated ...
-Stairs And Stair-Building. Part 5
Doorways should be kept well clear of landings both at top and bottom, and no intermediate landings should be separated by less than three steps. Odd steps in unexpected places are a source of danger....
-Stairs And Stair-Building. Part 6
Fig. 172. To obtain the width of the mould at the end a, produce the tangent ab, and from c draw cH perpendicular to it. Take the distance cH with a pair of compasses, and from any point L in...
-Chapter VII. External Plumbing
(Contributed by T. H. Bishop, A.R.I.B.A.) External plumbing consists mainly in covering roofs with lead to make them weather-tight. If laid successfully, lead surpasses every other material, as it co...
-External Plumbing. Part 2
Stepped Flashings One method of protecting the building where sloping roofs abut on walls or parapets is by the use of stepped flashings. These are pieces of 5-lb. lead, lying 6 inches on the roof an...
-External Plumbing. Part 3
Fig. 179. 179). The disadvantage of this method of fixing is that cracks are liable to occur round the edges of the soldered dot. Fig. 180. 2. The Secret Tack The Secret Tack. A better method ...
-Chapter VIII. Drainage
(Contributed by T. H. Bishop, A.R.I.B.A.) Of all the units that make a satisfactory house, the drainage should receive the most careful attention; a good system being absolutely necessary for the hea...
-Drainage. Part 2
When the main line of drains has been laid the trenches can be continued in a similar manner to the gulleys or soil pipes. Right-angled junctions should never be permitted, but special pipes with easy...
-Drainage. Part 3
3. Many forms of grease trap are on the market. They consist of a trap large enough to collect the fat from the greasy water, which is carried off by the sink wastes, and the inlet and outlet are unde...
-Drainage. Part 4
Cesspools and R.W. Tanks. - In cases where there is no public sewer adjacent to the house the drains are connected to a cesspool (see Fig. 195), ventilated as shown. Where the rain water is collected...
-Chapter IX. Sanitary Fittings And Their Plumbing
(Contributed by T. H. Bishop, A.R.I.B.A.) In Chapter VII (External Plumbing). external plumbing was dealt with, up to the point of connection with internal fittings. This chapter deals with internal ...
-Various Types Of W.C.'s, And Water-Waste Preventers
Important as the question of external drainage is, the whole system would be a failure if the internal fittings were not of the best quality; and of all sanitary fittings the w.c. is the most importan...
-Various Types Of W.C.'s, And Water-Waste Preventers. Part 2
Siphonic Closets have found favour in recent years, and have all the advantages of the washdown form with greater rapidity of flush and less noise in action, but they are somewhat more costly. A good ...
-Various Types Of W.C.'s, And Water-Waste Preventers. Part 3
Urinals are of two types, the lipped basin and the circular back. The lipped basin (Fig. 209) is trapped in itself, but the circular-backed (Fig. 210) discharges into a channel with a perforated grati...
-Chapter X. Glazing
(Contributed by T. H. BISHOP, A.R.I.B.A.) In a variable climate such as ours it is necessary that the openings to admit light be filled with a substance which will keep out the wind, rain, etc., and ...
-Glazing. Part 2
The effect of fire is similar to that on plate glass; but, while the plate glass falls out and is dangerous, the wired glass, although cracked, remains in position. The renewals of wired glass are mor...
-Glazing. Part 3
Fire-Resisting Glazing The Luxfer Prism Syndicate Ltd. have introduced a fire-resisting glazing, by means of a patent process of mounting or uniting glass by copper electrically deposited. The glass ...
-Chapter XI. Floor Paving And Wall Lining
There is one great practical essential in securing good decorative work on floors and walls, and that is, that the foundation should be thoroughly sound. In floors, a good base of rubble and cement, o...
-Floor Paving And Wall Lining. Part 2
If the treads and risers have to be tiled, there must be a stone, slate, or marble nosing provided for the tiling to finish against. This may be carried out in various ways. Fig. 241. There are ...
-Floor Paving And Wall Lining. Part 3
Fig. 245. There are two methods of laying mosaic, known as the Italian and the Roman methods. The Italian method consists of building up the design in sections on strips of paper, each cube of colo...
-Chapter XII. Bells And Bell-Hanging
(Contributed by H. Y. Margary) The bells used in modern buildings are of three kinds -1. Mechanical Bells; 2. Electric Bells; 3. Pneumatic Bells. 1. Mechanical Bells Mechanical Bells. These bells a...
-Bells And Bell-Hanging. Continued
Bells The bells are cast of an alloy of one part of pure tin and three or four parts of copper. Good quality bells are turned in a lathe after casting, and are lacquered to prevent corrosion. They sh...
-Chapter XIII. Plasterer
(Contributed by H. V. Margary.) Plastering may be defined as the covering of walls and other surfaces with any calcareous compound. In external work the operation is completed in two layers or coats,...
-Plasterer. Continued
Sand To ensure good plastering good sand must be used, preferably Leighton Buzzard standard sand, which may be obtained from many pits in that neighbourhood. It should be clean, sharp, and hard. From...
-On Lath
1-coat work - Lath and lay or lath and plaster one coat. 2-coat work - Lath, lay and set, or lath and plaster and set. 3-coat work - Lath, plaster, float and set, or lath, lay, float and set. The firs...









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