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Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment. Vol3 | by G. A. T. Middleton



Third Volume deals in its first part with the plans of Schools and Hospitals, its second and third parts being devoted to the consideration of Heating, Ventilating, and Lighting, and to Professional Practice in such matters as Light and Air Cases, Dilapidations, etc.

TitleModern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment Vol3
AuthorG. A. T. Middleton
PublisherThe Caxton Publishing Company
Year1921
Copyright1921, The Caxton Publishing Company
AmazonModern Buildings

Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment

By G. A. T. Middleton, A.R.I.B.A. Vice-President Of The Society Of Architects author of "building materials" "stresses and thrusts" "drainage of town and country houses" "The principles of architectural perspective" "Surveying And Surveying Instruments" Etc. Etc.

Assisted By A Specially Selected Staff Of Contributors

Profusely Illustrated

Vol. III

Part I. School And Hospital Planning

Part II. The Law Of Easements

Part III. Heating, Ventilating, And Lighting

List Of Coloured And Half-Tone Plates In Vol. III

Plate I. Day School for Girls ... Facing page 24

II. British Hospital, Constantinople . .--•.,, 48

,, III. Linslade Cottage Hospital, Leighton Buzzard ... ,,49

IV. Woburn Cottage Hospital .... ,, 52

,, V. Cylinder Tank and Cylinder System with Secondary Circulation, Hot-water

Apparatus . . . . . . . . . ,,88

,, VI. Electric Lighting Installation to a Small School . . . . ,, 176

-Part I. School And Hospital Planning. Chapter I. Regulations Applicable To School Planning
As a result of many years of close and specialised study, the planning of all schools which depend for their maintenance in any way upon grants from public funds has been reduced to an exact science, ...
-General Principles
The main requirements to be considered in planning are the number of boys and girls for whom provision is necessary, while the distribution of scholars in respect of age has also an important bearing ...
-Central Halls
When there is a Central Hall it should have floor space of not more than 4 square feet for each scholar, while about 3 1/2 will really be sufficient. The hall must be fully lighted, warmed, and ventil...
-Corridors
Large Schools not having a central hall must be provided with a wide corridor giving access to the rooms, two or three of which should be divided by movable partitions, so that one large room may be a...
-Schoolrooms
When a Schoolroom is the principal room in a school with neither hall nor corridor, it should never be designed for more than 100. A room of even smaller size is desirable. Width should vary according...
-Classrooms
The number of Classrooms should be sufficient for the requirements of the school. Classrooms should not be passage rooms from one part of building to another, or from schoolrooms to playgrounds or yar...
-Desks
Seats (fitted with backs) and desks should be provided, graduated according to children's ages, and placed at right angles to window wall. Eighteen inches per scholar at each desk and seat in determin...
-Accommodation
Accommodation in any school - i.e. number of places for which it is finally recognised - depends in part on arrangement of desks, which must be approved by the Board of Education. The central hall, co...
-Cookery Room, Etc
As a rule, a room for cookery, laundry, handicraft, science, or drawing will serve more than one school when it is provided, as a centre, in a convenient position. Every centre should have its cloakro...
-Laundry Centres
Laundry Centres should be simple in construction, entirely apart from ordinary school buildings, comprising about 750 square feet, and should have gallery or platform with desks for 42. Laundry tables...
-Handicraft Room
The arrangements, construction, lighting, and ventilation of a Handicraft Room should be modelled on a practical workshop rather than a school. The construction should be simple. The height at windows...
-Science Room
This room, when required, should not, as a rule, contain more than 600 square feet of floor space. It should be suitably fitted for instruction, and a fume closet provided if necessary in addition. An...
-Drawing Classroom
This room, where sanctioned, should have about 600 square feet of floor space, and light admitted at a suitable height and angle from north, north-east, or east. ...
-Higher Elementary Schools
A Higher Elementary School should, in general, be planned in accordance with the principles already described, as applied to ordinary public schools. Such a school for 300 to 350 scholars would usuall...
-Teachers' Room
A large school should provide, for the use of teachers, a small room or rooms, with a store for books and other material adjoining, and suitable lavatory accommodation, etc. Teachers' House When prov...
-Hygienic And Sanitary Conditions, Construction, And Emergency Rules
Site And Playground In planning a school the playground should be open and airy, proportioned to size and need. The site should, if possible, have a building frontage suitable to its area. A site op...
-Entrances
These should be separate for each department and sex. In large schools more than one to each department is desirable. Entrance doors should open outwards as well as inwards. A porch should be external...
-Staircases
Separate Staircases are necessary for boys and girls, and each department should have its own. They must be fireproof, external to halls, corridors, or rooms, and winders must not be used. Each step s...
-Lighting
Every part and corner should be well lighted, and, so far as possible, especially in classrooms, the light should be admitted from left side of scholars. Other windows in classrooms should be regarded...
-Ventilation
There must be ample provision for continuous inflow of fresh air and outflow of foul. The best way of providing this is to build to each room separate air flues, carried up in the smoke stack. An outl...
-Warming
Sufficient provision for heating, evenly distributed, must be made. When a corridor or lobby is warmed, rooms are more evenly dealt with and less liable to cold draughts. If a school be wholly warmed ...
-Sanitation
W.c.'s in the main buildings are undesirable, and only required for female teachers. All others should be completely disconnected, and privies should be fully 20 feet away. Latrines and approaches mu...
-Water Supply
In all schools adequate and wholesome drinking water must be available for scholars. In cases where it is not taken from the mains of an authorised company, care must be taken to ascertain that it is...
-Chapter II. Small Elementary Schools
School planning' is a branch of an architect's work to which a very large amount of attention has been given during the last half century, and at the present time elaborate regulations exist upon the ...
-Small Elementary Schools. Continued
It is, as a general rule, much more difficult to alter an old school satisfactorily than to build a new one. A problem of this description is shown in Fig. 3, the plan on the left-hand side representi...
-Chapter III. Large Elementary Schools
Just as the smaller elementary schools are almost invariably devised upon the Corridor system, so are the larger schools planned on the Central Hall system. The idea is that there are times when ...
-Chapter IV. Higher Grade And Technical Schools
In general principle there is not much difference between the schools already considered and those which are intended for higher and more specialised instruction. The differences lie much more in deta...
-Fittings
In the matter of fittings for technical schools it would perhaps be difficult to improve upon those designed for the Manchester Technical School, of which the architect is Mr. A. W. S. Cross, F.R.I.B....
-Chemical Lecture Theatre, Manchester Municipal Technical School
Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. ...
-Chapter V. Private And Special Schools
As the planning of private schools is not bound by any hard and fast rules laid down by an educational authority, there is a considerable amount of freedom if not of laxity in their planning. In fact,...
-Chapter VI. Hospitals On Open Sites
Hospital planning, like school planning, has tended of late years towards certain recognised types which are more and more rarely departed from. There are no such definite regulations as those upon sc...
-Hospitals On Open Sites. Part 2
One of these serves as a casualty and the other as a tradesman's entrance, and there are doors also leading from each into an internal area, which contains an iron fire-escape staircase as a secondary...
-Hospitals On Open Sites. Part 3
The ward is best placed with its axis running north and south, the entrance corridor lying at the north end of the block, and the south end being devoted to a verandah on to which patients can be whee...
-Chapter VII. Hospitals On Restricted Sites
When hospitals have to be built in crowded cities and upon comparatively small pieces of land, a good deal of skill is necessary in order to obtain the accommodation in compliance, to as great an exte...
-Hospitals On Restricted Sites. Part 2
Below this floor again is a basement, reached externally by stairs in an area, which passes across the narrow front of the building, and has a mortuary at one end of it in the form of an excavated cel...
-Hospitals On Restricted Sites. Part 3
Fig. 24. Fig. 25. Fig. 26. Fig. 27. Fig. 28. The basement shown in Fig. 27 has a separate low-level entrance in the front, where an ambulance is placed. A series of open areas and ...
-Chapter VIII. Small And Special Hospitals
Although in quite small hospitals the general principles of disconnection and the arrangement of the wards apply just as they do in large ones, yet in some cases there is greater opportunity, and in o...
-Small And Special Hospitals. Continued
It may be noticed in passing that lines have been drawn across all the openings showing the position of the walls and arches above them. This is often done in order to save time in an office, but it i...
-Part II. The Law Of Easements
{Contributed by J. Bridges-Lee, M.A., Barrister-at-Law) ...
-Chapter I. The Principles Of Easements - Light And Air
Most buildings would be either useless or of very little value if they could not be adequately lighted and ventilated. Dwelling-houses, offices, and workshops specially require plenty of daylight and ...
-Support
Rights of support for buildings are in some ways much more obscure, uncertain, and intricate when they come to be dealt with in practice than the natural rights or easements affecting light or air. Su...
-Chapter II. Light: Nature Of The Right
The expression right to light, though often used, is apt to mislead by engendering false ideas concerning the true nature of the issues, when there are disputes between neighbouring proprietors abou...
-Light: Nature Of The Right. Part 2
Such invasion of privacy is not recognised as an actionable wrong, so that if the people affected cannot erect screens on their own grounds to stop the overlooking, and thus preserve privacy, there ma...
-Light: Nature Of The Right. Part 3
The law relating to the extent of the Right of Easement to Light is now authoritively determined by the judgments delivered by Lord Chancellor Halsbury and Lords Macnaghten,Davcy, Robertson, and Lindl...
-Light: Nature Of The Right. Part 4
Subject to what has been said already, the broad general questions to be determined in each case are- (1) Whether the ancient lights of the plaintiff (or person complaining) have been illegally obstru...
-Chapter III. Light: Acquisition Of The Right
The ordinary means by which an easement of light can be obtained are by grant or covenant, express or implied, or under the provisions of the Prescription Act, 2 & 3 William IV. c. 71. Theoretically,...
-Light: Acquisition Of The Right. Part 2
As a general rule, when land or an easement is conveyed by deed, the grantee derives title by implied grant to any easement affecting the land of the grantor which is necessary to secure to the grante...
-Light: Acquisition Of The Right. Part 3
A third class of cases is where the owner of house and land sells them separately and simultaneously to different purchasers. In such cases it has been held that the rights of the purchasers are pract...
-Light: Acquisition Of The Right. Part 4
Section 3 of the Act relates exclusively to light, but it must be read in connection with Section 4, so that while Section 3 enacts that, in order to acquire an absolute and indefeasible right to li...
-Chapter IV. Light: Disturbance, Remedies, And Extinction
Disturbance and Remedies, generally speaking-, when an easement exists, whether that easement has come into existence by express or implied grant or covenant, or by prescription under the Act, whoever...
-Extinction, Suspension, And Revival
When one person becomes seized in fee of both the dominant and servient tenement, easements of light and all other easements are extinguished absolutely as regards those estates. When one person beco...
-Chapter V. Air
Although light and air are commonly coupled together in everyday language, when speaking of easements in connection with buildings it is necessary to distinguish between them, and to take note of some...
-Air. Continued
The case was decided in favour of the plaintiff, on the presumption of a lost grant. Concerning the degree of purity which a man may reasonably expect to find in the air which reaches his building, a...
-Chapter VI. Support
The right of support is a natural right possessed by the owner or occupier of land that the surface level of his land shall not be disturbed by the removal of means of support either laterally or vert...
-Support. Part 2
Sometimes, when land is excavated, matter oozes or flows into the excavation, which is of such consistence and composition that it is by no means easy to decide whether it should rather be considered ...
-Support. Part 3
Although the extent of the natural right of support for land from a neighbouring tenement is not affected immediately either by excavations upon the land or by buildings erected on it, or by the excav...
-Support. Part 4
The question whether railway companies are entitled to support like other surface owners has been raised and fully argued in the House of Lords, and it has been decided that a railway company, under a...
-Part III. Heating, Ventilating, And Lighting. Chapter I. The Principles Of Hot-Water Apparatus
(Anonymously Contributed) For a correct understanding of the working principle of any form of hot-water apparatus, whether for domestic supply or for warming buildings, it is essential that the cause...
-Chapter II. Domestic Hot-Water Supply-General Principles
Before describing the different designs or systems of apparatus erected for furnishing a supply of hot water at baths and other taps, it is necessary to point out and discuss one particular feature,...
-Chapter III. Domestic Hot-Water Apparatus - The Tank System
The oldest form of apparatus we have for domestic hot-water supply is that known as the Tank System, and on this account it is commonly condemned as being out of date. Engineers who practise this work...
-Domestic Hot-Water Apparatus - The Tank System. Continued
The next important detail is the cold supply service, which feeds the apparatus with cold water as fast as any warm water is withdrawn. This is the pipe shown coming from the house cistern to the tank...
-Chapter IV. Domestic Hot-Water Apparatus - The Cylinder And Cylinder-Tank Systems
The Cylinder System owes it name to the shape which the hot-water tank usually takes, and differs from that already treated in having the tank beneath all the tap branches instead of above them. It ma...
-Domestic Hot-Water Apparatus - The Cylinder And Cylinder-Tank Systems. Continued
In the many instances where taps are scattered about a building, and not all placed near the cylinder as in Fig. 42, the single-tube expansion pipe has the objection that at many points it entails a c...
-Chapter V. Hot-Water Heating Works - Low Pressure
In affording warmth to buildings by means of hot water all the methods and systems adopted rely, for efficacy, on the action of Convection, or obtaining a circulation, as it is termed. Without devot...
-The Two-Pipe System
In Fig. 43 is illustrated a simple apparatus which will serve to describe the chief points of the Two-pipe System from. Each radiator, it will be seen, communicates directly with a main flow and retur...
-The Two-Pipe System. Part 2
The radiator branches are taken from tees in the flows and returns as shown, and each radiator is usually given a stop or regulating valve. Whenever possible the connection should be effected as with ...
-The Two-Pipe System. Part 3
As the single main carries both flow and return waters, and all there is of them, it follows that it must remain its full size from beginning to end, and cannot be graduated as is possible with the tw...
-The Two-Pipe System. Part 4
Fig. 50. In this country the one-pipe system is not used largely when there are radiators on one or more floors above the ground floor, but there is no reason why the system should not be adopted ...
-The Overhead System
Fig. 51 illustrates the Overhead System, with details of its special features, as will be explained. In theory, and to a great extent in practice, it is considered correct, to favour the circulation, ...
-Horticultural Hot-Water Work
In heating glass-houses, it may be considered that the radiating surface always consists of cast-iron pipe, sometimes of 3 inches in size, but more usually 4 inches. It is also the two-pipe system...
-Horticultural Hot-Water Work. Continued
The Joints used for cast-iron hot-water pipes may be said to be confined to the borings joint, red and white lead, and rubber collars. The borings joint, also known as the rust joint, is made as follo...
-Chapter VI. Hot-Water Heating Works - High Pressure
The High-Pressure heating apparatus takes its name from the fact that it is either hermetically sealed or is closed with a heavily loaded valve, so that a considerable pressure occurs in the pipes and...
-Hot-Water Heating Works - High Pressure. Continued
Near the extreme highest point of the apparatus the filling cap is situated, and the expansion tube is situated above this. The filling cap is the cap on the elbow branch shown, and it is up to this...
-Chapter VII. Steam-Heating Apparatus
Before describing the different systems, or methods of carrying out steam-heating works it is necessary that some particulars be given as to the generation of steam and its action when generated. I...
-The One-Pipe System
Fig. 61 illustrates the general details entering into an apparatus on this system. In the first place, it will be seen that the installation is practically sealed at all points. This is to prevent los...
-The Two-Pipe System of Steam
The one special object aimed at with the two-pipe system of steam - heating apparatus is to provide separate pipes for the steam and the condensed water, and so to arrange these pipes that the steam a...
-The Drop Or Overhead System
The Drop System may be described as a one-pipe with vertical mains, as will be seen by Fig. 67. In this, as with the overhead hot-water system, the supply main is carried up the building to the highes...
-Chapter VIII. Ventilation: With Which Is Included Warming Buildings By Heated Air
While it would be possible to treat the subject of Ventilation alone, it would not be feasible to attempt dealing with Warming Buildings by Heated Air without going somewhat deeply into ventilation. C...
-Ventilation: With Which Is Included Warming Buildings By Heated Air. Continued
As stated, the need and extent of ventilation is based on the presence of carbonic acid gas and its comparative volume. The freshest air, however, always carries some of this impurity, probably 2 part...
-Natural Ventilation
The Natural form of ventilation, while undoubtedly receiving aid by the passage of wind over its flues, does not rely on this action. Its chief reliance is on the difference in temperature of the ai...
-Natural Ventilation. Continued
The cold-air duct may be of earthenware drain pipe, if it can be obtained large enough for the job, failing which galvanised sheet iron may be used ; or, in large jobs, a brickwork culvert is made, ce...
-Mechanical Ventilation
Mechanically induced air movement is carried out by fans or air propellers, and has the advantage of being positive in its action, which no other method of obtaining air movement truly is. It is ind...
-Mechanical Ventilation. Continued
A further example may be given in Fig. 76. This is the plan of one floor of an office building having several floors, each being treated as shown in this illustration. The fan is of the exhauster ty...
-Flue Area Required For Given Volume And Velocity
In arriving at the surface required in the heater, it has first to be stated that steam is the heating medium, and this may be exhaust steam at about 216, or may be live steam at any pressure ...
-Chapter IX. Grates And Stoves (For Coal Fuel). Grates
There are two special advantages possessed by the open visible fire which, though more sentimental than real, have done much to keep the open grate in favour, and are likely to do so for a long period...
-Grates And Stoves (For Coal Fuel). Grates. Part 2
About twenty-five years ago it became recognised that the fire grate consumed fuel too wastefully, and the slow-combustion grate became famous. The best known of these had for its chief feature the ...
-Grates And Stoves (For Coal Fuel). Grates. Part 3
Fig. 90. A considerable number of years ago Dr. Arnott introduced a grate which amounted to being a fire-box sunk in the hearth, or equivalent to this, so that no air came to the fuel except at th...
-Grate Fixing
It may be said that there are but two things that are essential in grate fixing, one being to fill in all space around the back of the grate solidly, the other to see that the fixing is air-tight. In ...
-Stoves
It is not intended to speak of the ordinary type of stove, which is merely an iron casing lined with firebrick, as it possesses no special features worth describing. Description will therefore be conf...
-Chapter X. Gas-Fitting
{Contributed by W. Noakes) Street Mains are generally laid in by the local Gas Company or their contractors, and are invariably cast iron. The size is, of course, in the discretion of the Gas Company...
-Gas-Fitting. Continued
To provide for the easy removal of a damaged or broken pipe, in any case where there is a considerable run of pipe or where there are several fittings, a Connector (Fig. 103) should always be inserted...
-Chapter XI. Gas Lighting And Heating
(Contributed by W. Noakes) The ordinary form of flat flame burner is either a bats-wing, a slit union, or union jet, as shown in Fig. 106. These are perhaps the most used of all and are made by vario...
-Gas Fires
The most common form of gas fire is that in which a burner is fitted to an existing grate, and the firing space filled up with asbestos or coral lumps. This is a very good form, but although the first...
-Chapter XII. Acetylene Lighting
Acetylene lighting, like gas and electric lighting, is distinctly practical. It is now quite beyond the experimental or doubtfully new stage, and those undertaking this work are, or should be, able to...
-Acetylene Lighting. Continued
9. The carbide trays should be divided up (by divisions) so that the carbide is wetted in small quantities at a time. 10. A very desirable arrangement is to have the carbide chambers - the generating...
-Principles Of Generation
The types of generators on the market may be broadly divided into two, the hand-fed or non-automatic and the automatic. The makers of one condemn the other, but, as a matter of fact, both are good. Th...
-Regulations To Be Observed In Erecting An Acetylene Installation
Except for small quantities, calcium carbide cannot be stored without a licence being first obtained. This means that an acetylene generating apparatus, when fixed for use, necessitates a licence bein...
-Chapter XIII. A Comparison Between Gas And Electric Lighting
[Contributed by H. Y. Margary) The particular means of illumination to be employed in any given building' is an important point constantly arising. As a rule both gas and electricity are available, a...
-A Comparison Between Gas And Electric Lighting. Continued
4. Fire Risk Fire Risk. A properly carried out electric-light installation is considered by the fire offices to be safer than any other, but a badly wired building is much more dangerous from a fire ...
-Chapter XIV. Simple Magnetic And Electric Phenomena
(Contributed by H. Y. Margary) It is advisable that a man who wires a building for electric-lighting purposes should have a very fair knowledge of the properties of the forces called magnetism and el...
-The Principles Of The Dynamo
If a coil of wire, such as C, Fig. 130, be revolved between the poles of a horseshoe magnet, a current will be induced in the coil. To utilise this current some means of conducting it away must be dev...
-Chapter XV. Units Used In Electrical Measurements
{Contributed by H. Y. Margarv) It is essential to become familiar with the units used in electrical measurement before the principles of wiring a building for lighting purposes can possibly be unders...
-Unit Of Magnetic Force
It has been explained how the pole of a magnet either of the bar or solenoidal form will exert a repellent or attractive force upon the pole of another magnet according as the poles concerned are like...
-Electromotive Force
This term is used to denote the force which moves or tends to move electricity from one point in a conductor to another. The analogy of the water pipes will again be useful in explaining the nature of...
-Chapter XVI. Wires And Cables - Jointing
{Contributed by H. Y. Margary) The term cable strictly applies to a conductor composed of a number of strands of wire. Cables are often spoken of as wires, conductors, or leads. The term wire, howeve...
-Insulation Resistance
Although the insulating material is spoken of as a non-conductor, it will not absolutely prevent the passage of current but allows an infinitesimal amount to pass, the actual amount varying with the t...
-Jointing Cables
It is of the utmost importance that when cables have to be joined the joints should be most carefully made by skilled workmen. Bad joints may not become apparent at first, but sooner or later they are...
-Chapter XVII. Arrangement Of Cables And Cut-Outs In A Building
[Contributed by H. Y. Margary) As in this and in the subsequent chapters a number of technical terms will be employed, such terms will be here fully explained save where they apply to fittings, when ...
-Systems Of Wiring Buildings
There are three general systems of arranging the conductors within a building for electric lighting purposes. These are the Tree or Single Main System, the Subdivided Mam System, and the Three- Wire S...
-Example Of Wiring A Building
In Plate VI. is illustrated the plan and sections of the school previously described in Fig. I, with the arrangement of wires for electric lighting shown upon it diagrammatically. The number of lamps...
-Example Of Wiring A Building. Continued
Distributing Boards The main distributing board contains six fuses, one for each pole of the three sub-mains, and may be of any of the types shown in Chapter XIX (Electrical Accessories, Fixing And C...
-Chapter XVIII. Casing And Conduits
(Contributed by H. Y. Margary) Having discussed the general arrangements of wires in a building, it is now necessary to describe the various methods of fixing the wires. These depend upon the nature ...
-Chapter XIX. Electrical Accessories, Fixing And Connecting
{Contributed by H. Y. Margary) The principal accessories to electric-lighting installations, such as lamps, fuses, and switches, have been already mentioned in the chapter upon the arrangement of wir...
-Electrical Accessories, Fixing And Connecting. Part 2
The drawing in the left-hand top corner of the figure shows diagrammatically the manner in which the lamp is connected up. The current enters at the positive terminal, along the contact spring curvatu...
-Electrical Accessories, Fixing And Connecting. Part 3
Fuses It has already been stated that where a branch wire joins a larger wire, fuses must be used to ensure safety from fire. Fig. 170 shows one of the simplest types of fuse box, in which the fuse w...
-Chapter XX. Private Installations
(Contributed by H. Y. Margary) An electric lighting installation consists essentially of a dynamo with some form of engine to drive it, and all necessary wire, lamps, and fittings. Many circumstances...
-Chapter XXI. Electric Lighting Regulations
{Contributed by H. Y. Marcary) Of the many regulations relating to electric lighting, those most immediately important are the rules laid down by the Fire Offices. Next in importance are those of the...
-Undertaker's Regulations For Wiring Work
These should be rigidly enforced, as all tend to the benefit of the consumer. The contractor aims to get his work done with a minimum of cost to himself, and is quite satisfied if he gets through the...
-Chapter XXII. Oil Gas
{Contributed by H. Luttrell Godden) Amongst the many modern improvements, both in effect produced and in economy of production, the use of gas obtained from light oils or spirits, both for lighting a...
-Oil Gas. Continued
(3) a rotating air suction fan F, of special design ; and (4) a small holder H, which also acts as a regulator. The driving power is obtained in small plants by means of a weight W, on a wire rope, t...









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