This section is from the book "Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment Vol5", by G. A. T. Middleton. Also available from Amazon: Modern Buildings.
Sufficient accommodation for the whole congregation was not, however, obtainable in this nave, so that transepts have been thrown out at its east end, served by the aisle passage ways and seated to face eastwards. A good view can still be obtained of the reading-desk and pulpit, though not of the communion table. The chancels are of nave width, with very little to mark the separation save an archway which springs from corbels. Use is made of this great width to provide return ways for communicants on either side behind the choir seats, this being almost essential in order to avoid passing where there is a large congregation and many attendants at the communion. The extension of the north transept is used as a small subsidiary church or chapel, known as a Morning Chapel, and intended for use at early communions and week-day services when only a small congregation is anticipated, while the additional seats are useful on occasions when the general body of the church is full. The organist sits in the southern extension, but the organ would be bracketed or corbelled out in the flank south bay of the choir, and on its east wall, facing west, in the south transept.
Standrew. Torridon. Rd Catford.
Section through nave Looking West.
Section through choir looking west.
Scale of feet.
Philip .A. Robson . AR-I-BA.
Nicholson & Corlette, Architects.
Section Thro Choir
Section Across Chancel.
Section Across Nave.
Ground Plan Plate 2A.
St Martins Church Epsom. Surrey.
Section Across Nave.
Nicholson & Corlette
Architects 2. New Square • Lincolns Inn- W.C.
A village hall having been built simultaneously with the church, the vestries have been provided between the two buildings, so as to serve both, and a communicating passage has been arranged so that the clergy can reach the Morning Chapel behind the principal communion table, which is much preferred by many clergy to passing across the body of the church.
In many town parishes it is found that there are two different classes of congregations, one of which will attend the church proper, while the other, generally of a class which does not feel it can dress very well, will take no part in the full church service but will willingly enter a parish hall where a service of less formal character is conducted. Thus has arisen the need for such a building, which, as seen here (Fig. 5), is served from side and back roads, and has a platform at one end, accessible from the vestries but containing no communion table. This hall is used also for many other parish purposes, such as lectures and bazaars, and is, in fact, kept in constant use, in most London parishes at any rate. A smaller hall for committee and guild meetings, penny banks, etc., is also of great value, and is shown in this example as being separated from the vestry only by a sliding partition.
The group of buildings is completed by the vicarage, which differs but little from an ordinary detached house, save that a quiet study has to be provided for the clergyman, so placed that he can receive parishioners in it without their necessarily entering the body of the house.
The new church of St. Martin at Epsom (Plate II.) illustrates a parish church on a larger and more fully developed scale. There is the same general arrangement of nave and aisles. A central entrance is contrived at the west end, so as to secure a clear passage way for processional purposes, there being subsidiary entrances at the north and south extremities of a species of narthex or transverse hall at the west end - a screened-off portion enabling members of the congregation to obtain access to all parts from either entrance without passing within the body of the church. This building has the somewhat unusual modern feature of a western gallery, under which the narthex occurs. The font is temporarily placed here, but the tower on the north side is intended to form the permanent baptistery as well as a secondary entrance to the church, and is planned with a view to its being built after the completion of the rest of the work. Again, the choir and sanctuary are of the full width of the nave, the return ways being arranged in the choir aisles, underneath the organ on the north and down the central passage way of the morning chapel on the south. The vestries are all placed on the north side and are of considerable size, there being a large choir vestry with stands and cupboards for vestments, besides a clergy vestry and a sacristy. This church has been planned for vaulting, all the others mentioned having been roofed with timber, and a beautiful external effect has been obtained by carrying alternate bays of the aisles up to the level of the nave, barrel vaulting these higher portions while the low parts are cross vaulted. On comparing it with the other examples it will be seen that this secures very much better lighting of the interior, the high level aisle windows shedding a flood of cross light, such as is not to be obtained with clerestory lighting, unless the nave be carried up to a height which is not consistent with economy of construction. The ample height also gives the opportunity for placing the organ at a high level, and in such a position as to be heard all over the church.
Fig. 7. H.P.Adams F.R.I.B.A.
Fig. 6 represents a church designed by Mr. W. G. Kerby, upon lines such as were frequently adopted in the Middle Ages, the tower being placed in the middle of the west front and the main entrance being obtained under it, so that there is a clear passage way from west to east. The choir has been brought forward into what, according to the general plan, might more properly be considered to be the nave, accommodating the organ round one of the nave piers in a position from which it can be well heard. The external appearance of transepts is secured, but actually they form no part of the congregational space, that on the north being occupied by the morning chapel and so screened off from the main building as hardly to be available for a nave service, and that on the south being devoted to vestries. An elaborate system of vaulting is shown, with the resulting stout buttresses, the church being designed for architectural display rather than for economy, and probably for a somewhat high ritual.