books



previous page: Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment. Vol3 | by G. A. T. Middleton
  
page up: Architecture and Construction Books
  
next page: Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment. Vol6 | by G. A. T. Middleton

Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment. Vol5 | by G. A. T. Middleton



At all periods of the world's history, and in all countries, the greatest architectural monuments have been those of a religious character; and not only has an effort always been made to render them architecturally the most beautiful, but also structurally the most sound, as they are built not for a single generation but to be of a lasting character. As a natural sequence of this, a certain type of plan which developed many ages ago has been adhered to with wonderful persistence, so that at the present time the buildings erected vary comparatively little in this respect, differing only in certain minor peculiarities to meet the needs of particular congregations and of certain varieties of ritual.

TitleModern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment Vol5
AuthorG. A. T. Middleton
PublisherThe Caxton Publishing Company
Year1921
Copyright1921, The Caxton Publishing Company
AmazonModern Buildings

Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment

By G. A. T. Middleton, A.R.I.B.A. Vice-President Of The Society Of Architects author of "building materials" "stresses and thrusts" "drainage of town and country houses" "The principles of architectural perspective" "Surveying And Surveying Instruments" Etc. Etc.

Assisted By A Specially Selected Staff Of Contributors

Profusely Illustrated

Vol. V

Part I. Ecclesiastical Buildings

Part II. Armoured Concrete And Masonry Construction

Part III. The Duties Of Clerks Of Works

Part IV. Australian Planning And Construction

-Part I. Ecclesiastical Buildings. Chapter I. Establishment Churches
At all periods of the world's history, and in all countries, the greatest architectural monuments have been those of a religious character; and not only has an effort always been made to render them a...
-Establishment Churches. Part 2
Sufficient accommodation for the whole congregation was not, however, obtainable in this nave, so that transepts have been thrown out at its east end, served by the aisle passage ways and seated to fa...
-Establishment Churches. Part 3
Exceptions other than mere variations from the generally accepted type are rarely found, but an entirely unusual church has just been erected as the chapel to the King Edward VII. Sanatorium at Midhur...
-Chapter II. Roman Catholic Churches
Roman Catholic churches differ but little from those of the Establishment, partly on historical grounds, and partly because the needs of the ritual are somewhat similar; but it always has to be borne ...
-Chapter III. Nonconformist And Exceptional Places Of Worship
Speaking generally, Nonconformist churches and chapels differ but little in plan from those of the Establishment, this being particularly the case in the Wesleyan and Congregational bodies. In all ins...
-Chapter IV. Mortuary Chapels And Crematoria
(Contributed by Albert C. Freeman, M.S.A. Author of Crematoria in Great Britain and Abroad) The subject of provision for the dead is one of those questions which most men consider unworthy of more ...
-The Cremation Act
The first crematorium to be erected in this country was at Woking in 1879, but no cremation was performed until 1885, owing to the law forbidding the burning of human remains. In 1883 a cremation took...
-The Catafalque
The catafalque, or table upon which the coffin is placed during the service (see Fig. 22) should be fixed with its head abutting the cremating chamber. When this is constructed beneath the chapel, the...
-Cremating Chamber
The first question to decide in the planning of this portion of the crematorium is the number of furnaces to be installed, and whether it is proposed to form it as an open chamber or with an intermedi...
-Furnaces
There are at present four types of furnaces in operation in this country. Messrs. Simons', Toisoul, Fradet & Co.'s, the Carbon Oxide Company's, and the one at the Birmingham Crematorium, designed by M...
-Chimney Shaft
The chimney shaft should be placed in close proximity to the furnace, the internal measurements, at the base, being at least 2 feet square, and should be carried up to a height of 60 feet, though for ...
-Columbaria
Having now given consideration to every phase of the crematorium, the next matter for our attention is the provision for the storage of urns. There are at present only two columbaria in this country, ...
-Part II. Armoured Concrete And Masonry Construction. Chapter I. Armoured Or Reinforced Concrete: Considerations Governing Its Adoption
(Contributed by P. R. Strong) Concrete has long been used in such positions as in the foundations of walls or in the construction of heavy retaining walls, etc. Its use in such positions is made ad...
-Advantages In The Use Of Armoured Concrete
1. Small Cost, And Consequently Reduced Capital Expenditure Small Cost, And Consequently Reduced Capital Expenditure. The difference of cost between this and other methods of construction must, of ...
-Disadvantages In The Use Of Armoured Concrete
1. Quality Of Resultant Material Cannot Be Seen Before It Is Embedded In The Work Quality Of Resultant Material Cannot Be Seen Before It Is Embedded In The Work. Unlike steel construction, in which...
-Chapter II. Armoured Or Reinforced Concrete: General Principles Of The Various Systems
{Contributed by P. R. Strong) General Principles The general arrangement of reinforcement in the construction of floors and pillars may be seen in Figs. 23 and 39. It will be observed that floor...
-Armoured Or Reinforced Concrete: General Principles Of The Various Systems. Part 2
Fig. 29. Fig. 30. It is clear that if stirrups be used in conjunction with horizontal members, to resist the curved disposition of tensile stress, some rigid connection is necessary ...
-Armoured and Reinforced Concrete: General Principles Of The Various Systems. Part 3
Fig. 40. Fig. 42 shows the Kahn system of reinforced hollow tile floor. This floor is light, produces an even surface on the under side, and gives improved resistance to the transmission of s...
-Chapter III. Concrete And Its Properties
{Contributed by P. R. Strong) Materials Cement, in binding the aggregate together, may perhaps be considered to be the most important ingredient of concrete, and none but the best slow-setting P...
-Concrete And Its Properties. Part 2
Quantity Of Water The question as to the correct quantity of water has called forth much unnecessary controversy and unconsidered faddism. Mixtures are very generally known as wet and dry, some...
-Concrete And Its Properties. Part 3
Safe Load In Compression Taking an ultimate load of 2240 lbs., and applying a factor of safety of 5, the safe load becomes 448 lbs. per square inch; or using a factor of 6, it becomes 373 lbs. In o...
-Chapter IV. Armoured Or Reinforced Concrete - Beams
{Contributed by P. R. Strong) Bending Moments Armoured concrete lends itself particularly to the construction of beams which are continuous over their supports and of beams with fixed ends. As p...
-Armoured Or Reinforced Concrete - Beams. Part 2
Resistance Of Beams Before being able to calculate the strength of a beam the value of h must be found; for as the value of E in compression and tension is not the same, the neutral axis is now no ...
-Armoured Or Reinforced Concrete - Beams. Part 3
Fig. 55. For intermediate proportions the BM parallel to the short sides may be found by multiplying by L4 L4 + B4 that obtained when considering the slab as a simple beam of length B; whe...
-Armoured Or Reinforced Concrete - Beams. Part 4
In Fig. 59 the compressional reinforcement is shown at depth g below the surface, and according to the theory of similar triangles the strain at this point will h - g be h x strain at surface; consequ...
-Chapter V. Armoured Or Reinforced Concrete For Various Uses
{Contributed by P. R. Strong) Pillars As already seen, vertical reinforcement is employed in the construction of pillars, its use being to help to distribute the load past weak points in the con...
-Armoured Or Reinforced Concrete For Various Uses. Part 2
Fig. 62 shows a common form of pillar foundation (Hennebique system), being very similar to the grillage foundation shown in Fig. 184, Volume IV.; and as in that case the size of steel joists was arri...
-Armoured Or Reinforced Concrete For Various Uses. Part 3
Fig. 67 shows the construction of a pile on the Williams system, it being reinforced with a rolled steel joist, the web of which is cut away and the flanges bent in to form the point of the pile. Arou...
-Chapter VI. The Geometry Of Masonry
(Contributed by Walter Hooker) In considering the application of the principles of masonry to practical use the object has been to eliminate from the examples given, as far as possible, the introdu...
-Circles And Curves
DG = A and DH=C. From DF cut off DI = B. Join IH, and draw GK parallel to IH, cutting DF in K. KD is a fourth proportion to the lines A, B, C. That is, DH: DI: DG:DD, or in other words, C B A KD. ...
-The Projection Of Solids
In this section a few of the more useful projections only are given, it being presumed that the reader is already acquainted with the elementary principles of the subject. The following projections...
-Interpenetration Of Solids
By interpenetration is meant the intersection of two bodies of similar or different form, resulting in a regular or irregular figure, as the case may be. Fig. 86. Take a simple case, namel...
-Chapter VII. Arches - Plane
(Contributed by Walter Hooker) The nature of the various forms of arches and the technical terms used in connection therewith have already been explained under the head of Arches in Volume I. of th...
-Arches - Plane. Continued
Equilateral Arches Fig. 99 shows an arch in which the centres fall on the springing points A and B. In this case the triangle Abc is equilateral, and hence such an arch is termed an Equilateral Arc...
-Chapter VIII. Arches - Circular On Plan, Oblique And Battered
(Contributed by Walter Hooker) A problem of some difficulty is encountered when an arch has to be constructed in a wall which is circular on plan, or in a battered wall, or when the axis of the arc...
-Chapter IX. Vaulting
(Contributed by Walter Hooker) A vault is an arched covering over an apartment. Vaults usually take their name from the nature of the curve forming the intrados of their cross section. ...
-Cylindrical Or Barrel Vaults
The most simple form of vault is one having its cross section semicircular, as shown at AB in Fig. 118. This form is sometimes carried out with stones of even thickness throughout, and sometimes with ...
-Cylindrical Or Barrel Vaults. Continued
Fig. 120 shows the case of a vaulted compartment such as would be occasioned by a semicircular vault passing round a circular building. Abcd is the plan. Aeb is the section of the semicircular vault, ...
-Chapter X. Pointed Or Gothic Vaults
(Contributed by Walter Hooker) The term pointed is applied to vaults in which the surfaces rise to a point at the apex. They are called equilateral, drop, four-centred, etc., according to the met...
-Pointed Or Gothic Vaults. Continued
The position of the curve of each rib is found and marked on the stone, and templates cut to the curve are applied to the nosing of the stones to which the faces are worked. The mouldings are then cut...
-Chapter XI. Domes
(Contributed by Walter Hooker) The full-page drawing, Plate V., gives the general drawings with constructional details of a small Mausoleum in stone, designed by Mr. E. L. Hampshire, A.R.I.B.A. ...
-Chapter XII. Stone Columns
(Contributed by Walter Booker) It is of the utmost importance in the preparation of the finished stone for its destined position in a building to ascertain with accuracy the exact sizes and shapes ...
-Chapter XIII. Stone Stairs
(Contributed by Walter Hooker) The technical terms used in connection with stairs, and the methods of proportioning the risers to the treads, and of setting out stairs, are explained in Chapter VI ...
-Chapter XIV. General Details Of Masonry - Classic
(Contributed by Walter Hooker) In this and the following chapter no attempt will be made to do more than describe architectural features from the structural point of view, so far as they apply to m...
-Plinths
In order to give that stability and spread to the walls at the base of a structure which is necessary to provide a solid foundation, and at the same time to economise both in weight of superstructure ...
-Cornices, Parapets, Etc
In the completion of structures of Classic design a finish is given to the building by a cornice of more or less magnitude. Properly so called, the purely Classic designation would be entablature, ...
-Windows
In modern Classic work the windows have either square heads surrounded with an architrave mould (Fig. 142) or some other form of ornamentation, or else are semicircular, with an architrave and hood-mo...
-Doorways
In the Classic and Renaissance varieties of doorways the heads are usually horizontal, or in other words a lintel is inserted to form the head, with a relieving arch to throw the weight of the super...
-Chapter XV. General Details Of Masonry - Gothic
(Contributed by Walter Hooker) Plinths Fig. 146 gives a few types of Gothic plinths. It will be seen that the joints are arranged to come under projecting mouldings, which are designed to make wate...
-Bands Or String Courses
Often strings, more especially in Gothic buildings, by following the curves of the arches, either of windows and doors if external or of the nave arches internally, serve to accentuate the arch mouldi...
-Cornices And Parapets
In Gothic buildings, in addition to a cornice moulding, the parapet is of common application, serving to hide the guttering and the junction of the roof with the wall, and also to lessen the effect of...
-Buttresses
These project from the normal wall face more or less in accordance with the strain they have to resist. This strain may result either from the thrust due to the principals of a wooden roof, in which c...
-Piers
This term is more particularly applied to the supports of heavy superstructures, whether of simple, square, or octagonal plan, or with engaged shafts forming an integral part of the main structure. Th...
-Bases And Caps
Bases are near akin to plinth moulds in their general characteristics, more especially where employed externally. Their mouldings should be designed to protect the stone below from injury by wet, and ...
-Gothic Windows
The simplest type of Gothic window is undoubtedly the lancet, being, as the name implies, long and narrow, the head being formed of two arcs meeting at a point more or less acute. An example is given ...
-Gothic Doorways
In the treatment of Gothic doorways, when furnished with lintels, the latter are usually of massive stones or have relieving arches over. The lintels may be also composed of several voussoirs forming ...
-Gothic Minor Ornaments
In Gothic architecture it is customary to finish the gable apices of buildings with some form of ornamentation. These may take the form of simple fleur-de-lis, or may be further elaborated in the form...
-Chapter XVI. Building Stone. Sandstones
(Contributed by Walter Hooker) The best known stones of this class are to be found as sedimentary rocks in the Silurian Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic formations. Thos...
-Limestones
Limestones are mainly derived from the Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, and Oolitic formations. They consist, as a rule, almost entirely of carbonate of lime, or of admixture of lime and magnesia. So...
-Limestones. Continued
Oolites This class of limestone is very abundant in various parts of the country, more especially in the counties of Gloucester, Somerset, and Dorset; of the shelly variety in Northampton, Rutland,...
-Granites
The next group to be dealt with is that of the igneous rocks. These are known as granites, syenites, porphyrys, etc. Many of these rocks may be more clearly defined under the head of Plutonic rocks...
-Testing Stone
Stones depend much on the adhesive qualities of the material cementing their component parts. The strength of these cementing materials determines their resistance to crushing and also to the effects ...
-Causes Of Decay
The chemical changes that may be effected in the structure of a stone by means of moisture may cause deterioration in the following ways The introduction of wet and subsequent frosty weather may tend ...
-Preservation Of Stone
Many methods for preserving stone have been experimented upon with varying success, some of the better know of which are the following - Painting the face of the stone either with boiled oil or oil...
-Chapter XVII. The Theory Of Arches, Vaults, And Buttresses
(Contributed by E. H. Hawkins) Arches such as occur in smaller buildings generally have their thickness determined by rule, but for larger examples it is more satisfactory to determine their stabil...
-Part III. The Duties Of Clerks Of Works. Chapter I. Education - Letters And Reports
(Reprinted from The Building News) There are few more difficult positions to fill in connection with buildings than that of a Clerk of Works, yet there are none about which so little information ...
-Education - Letters And Reports. Part 2
There can be few worse Clerks of Works than he who makes a pal of the Foreman; and while he who is always appealing to the Architect upon every little question will soon be voted a nuisance, and is no...
-Education - Letters And Reports. Part 3
So many things which occur during the course of building affect the eventual price, and so many of the Clerk of Works' decisions are liable to be called in question at a subsequent date, that it is of...
-Education - Letters And Reports. Part 4
The orderliness which is thus started with the letters and the diary can be consistently maintained throughout everything. The cement samples should be kept in tins which bear the number and date of r...
-Present State Of Works
................................ ............................... General Report on materials and workmanship, giving reasons for any rejections in detail. .......................................
-Chapter II. Setting-Out
Some of the most important of a Clerk of Works' duties are those which have to be undertaken at the earliest stage of the contract, for it is then that the building is set out on the ground. He has no...
-Setting-Out. Part 2
As a general rule, a Contractor sets out his angles by means of a large square made in his workshops, by setting two pieces of timber at right angles to one another, and binding them across the angle....
-Setting-Out. Part 3
Having once selected the wall and marked its extreme points, a sight-rail or gallows should be put up beyond it at either end, quite clear of the building. This is formed of two stout stakes driven ...
-Chapter III. Testing Materials
A great part of a Clerk of Works' time is necessarily taken up, particularly during the earlier stages of a building contract, in testing the materials brought on to the site, so as to enable him to e...
-Testing Materials. Part 2
The principal test for soundness is that of boiling, and it may be carried out with quite elementary appliances. A circular pat of cement is made upon glass, slate, or some other smooth substance, abo...
-Testing Materials. Part 3
Examination for flaws in the stone is, whether specified or not, essential in all cases, and a considerable amount of judgment has to be exercised in accordance with the particular stone which may hap...
-Chapter IV. Supervision
If ever there is a time when the Clerk of Works has to be more constantly upon the site than at any other, it is during the digging and laying of the foundations. These are generally shown upon the pl...
-Supervision. Part 2
This also applies to floors and staircases, and, in fact, to all concrete which is worked into moulds or packed round any supporting material. Concrete floors must in all cases be protected against ra...
-Supervision. Part 3
It is almost invariably specified that no one part of a building shall be carried to a greater height than 5 feet above any other part at any one time, except, of course, finished work. This is done t...
-Supervision. Part 4
All copper work is generally executed by special workmen under a special contract, and so is asphalt, where asphalt flats are used. As a result there is rarely need for such close supervision as when ...
-Part IV. Australian Planning And Construction. Chapter I. Introductory
(Contributed by R. J. Haddon, F.R.V.I.A., F.S.A.I.A.) Australian architecture, as we see it to-day, has in its different phases all the variations of development from the primitive slab wood hut to...
-Public Buildings
The history of the public buildings of Australia is the history of romance; for it runs side by side with the marvellous development of many of her gold cities, and lies close to the pioneering life o...
-Suburbia
Though Australia has to be considered, by reason of its area and resources, distinctly a pastoral and mining country, a decided feature of its life is the large proportion of its population dwelling i...
-The Mansions
The success of the pastoralist, and the position of the governor, the judge, and the rich resident have brought into existence many large houses that may well be classed as mansions. Houses of thirty ...
-Ecclesiastical And Educational Buildings
For a country with but limited traditions and without an Established Church, Australia has considerable work to show in church and school building. And if her own traditions be but short, the traditio...
-Australian Newness
With old world thoughts and experiences thick upon us, Australian architecture comes as a surprising demonstration of the new. So used have we been to seek out and admire the old buildings, to gather ...
-Chapter II. Domestic Planning
(Contributed by R. J. Haddon, F.R.V.I.A., F.S.A.I.A.) The average character of the Australian cottage differs somewhat markedly from that of England. The English preference for a two-storey treatme...
-Domestic Planning. Continued
The plan well shows the admirable quality of providing for the semi open-air life of a warm climate by the introduction of numerous verandahs, terraces, balconies, and exit doors and windows, while cr...
-Shops
The Australian shop, if it be situated with a northern or western aspect, is invariably characterised by a permanent verandah, extending right over the public footpath with supporting posts at the cur...
-Offices
The group of offices known as the Stock Exchange Building (Figs. 194 and 195), situated in Pitt Street, Sydney, was erected from designs by Messrs. Sulman & Power, of that city. The planning has been ...
-Chapter III. Public Buildings Of All Kinds
(Contributed by R. J. Haddon, F.R.V.I.A., F.S.A.I.A.) Williamstown School (Fig. 197) is one of the latest type of Government infants' schools, designed in the Department of Public Works, and so pla...
-Public Buildings Of All Kinds. Part 2
The general plan of the Melbourne Public Library (Fig. 203) shows the large existing buildings fronting Swanston Street on the west, and passing along the whole of a city block to Russel Street on the...
-Public Buildings Of All Kinds. Part 3
Figs. 208 and 209 illustrate the Melbourne Houses of Parliament now used by the Federal Government. They were designed by Mr. Peter Kerr, F.R.I.B.A., upon simple and noble lines with external porticoe...
-Chapter IV. Ecclesiastical Buildings
(Contributed by R.J. Haddon, F.R.V.I.A., F.S.A.I.A.) St. Mary's Roman Catholic Cathedral, Sydney (Fig. 214), is perhaps the finest specimen of Decorated Gothic architecture in Australia, and has co...
-Chapter V. Miscellaneous Buildings
(Contributed by R. J. Haddon, F.R.V.I.A., F.S.A.I.A.) The New Opera House, Melbourne, designed by the Hon. William Pitt, F.R.V.I.A., and shown in Fig. 220, is one of the most up-to-date theatres in...
-Miscellaneous Buildings. Part 2
The works, which cost about ,50,000, have been carried out from plans and under the supervision of Mr. Charles D'Ebro, Assoc.M. Inst.C.E. of Melbourne, an Australian expert in freezing works design. ...
-Miscellaneous Buildings. Part 3
Aspect and site, more particularly as regards levels, approaches, and drainage, are prime factors in planning; for on them will depend whether the milk or cream will require to be mechanically elevate...
-Miscellaneous Buildings. Part 4
The accompanying plan of a Wool Shed (Fig. 231) is one that has lately been erected by Mr. Arthur Peck, F.R.V.I.A., of Melbourne, and is described as the centre-board plan, - that is, the shearers are...
-Chapter VI. Australian Constructional Methods. Masonry
(Contributed by R. J. Haddon, F.R.V.I.A., F.S.A.I.A.) Australia may be said to be rich in good building materials, none of the least of which are her varied and widely spread deposits of good worka...
-Brickwork
In such a large country as Australia there must needs be a great variation in the quality of bricks available for building, but while this is so it may be laid down as a general rule that the bricks a...
-Mortar
Australia has excellent limes of all kinds, and creek sand is generally available, while there are also good colonial cements. Grouting is more often resorted to than in English work, the Billy ca...
-Armoured Concrete
The plan given in Fig. 235 is that of an important building carried out entirely, as far as its interior proportions are concerned, in armoured concrete, the outer walls alone being of brick. The b...
-Plastering
The trade of the plasterer has found considerable scope in Australia, especially for outside work. This is much to be noticed in the brick areas where stone has been too dear to use in a general way f...
-Carpentry And Joinery
There are two general divisions in the native building woods of Australia - the gums and the pines, the gums being by far the greater in importance for building purposes. The great gum (eucalyptus) fo...
-Plumbing
It may be taken as characteristic of Australian plumbing work that much less lead is used than in Britain, the excessive and sudden changes of temperature being most destructive to this material. I...
-Painting And Glazing
It may be taken as characteristic of the painter's craft in Australia that the excessive heat and sudden changes of temperature, which open and close the wood, are much more destructive to his work th...
-Lighting
In the newly settled parts of Australia, such as on the goldfields of Western Australia, where towns have been literally born in a day and cities created in a few years, electric lighting is often the...
-Heating And Ventilation
In comparing American with Australian planning, one is at once struck with the influence which the warming problem has upon the former work, an influence that often absolutely alters the scheme of arr...
-Outline Specification (For Western Australian Work). Materials
P.C. Values. - The specified P.C. values are the net cost of the articles at the manufacturers in England, unless otherwise described. Water Water shall be clean and free from salt. Sand ...









TOP
previous page: Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment. Vol3 | by G. A. T. Middleton
  
page up: Architecture and Construction Books
  
next page: Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment. Vol6 | by G. A. T. Middleton