The strong galvanised iron pail or bucket is much used in small building works, having a flat hoop round the top with bottom and side straps, riveted sides and forged ears. Tipping buckets (No. 1 in Fig. 206) are, however, more used for carrying earth, mortar, concrete, etc. In order that it may tip easily and be upright when empty the hinges are so placed as to be above the centre of gravity of the bucket when empty and below the centre of gravity when full. As the bucket becomes full it tends to make half a revolution, and so get rid of its contents. This is prevented by fixing a catch on hinges so as to grasp the handles at B. Thus the bucket cannot tilt, but should the catch be turned back it makes the half-revolution, and after emptying the contents resumes an upright position of itself. These buckets are of steel construction, and may hold, as the case may require, from 1/4 to 1 yard cube.

Buckets And Baskets 236

Fig. 206.

Sometimes, however, a steel box having a hinged bottom with catch fixed thereto is used, so that all the material may be deposited at any given place. The catch may be released either from above or below by means of a chain with which it is connected. Thus the bottom of the box recovers its position when reaching the ground for refilling. These boxes are also made of steel, and may be either round or square. Each box is fitted with a bow or bend in the handle to receive hook of chain or lugs for chain slings.

The "Mackerel back," "Short nature," and "Squeaky" are the forms of baskets more commonly used by builders; but, as usually constructed, the handles and bottom do not withstand much wear. Baskets are now constructed on a much improved system and are, therefore, recommended, although their extra weight caused by the introduction of an iron hoop might tell against them. No. 2, Fig. 206, shows a form of bucket used for hoisting purposes. A tarred hemp rope forms part of the basket construction, the handles being for hand use in shouldering. Care should, however, be taken to see that the rope, being in constant use, is sound, so that safety may be ensured. Ordinary baskets may be rendered more safe by passing the slinging rope or chain through the handles and round the bottom, which are made flat by fitting pieces of wood on it. In this way the rope is prevented from slipping (see No. 3). At No. 4 in Fig. 206 will be seen an iron hook bent to the shape required, and the cane plaited round as for the ordinary basket. The handles and bottom cannot, in this construction, give way. The cost of these baskets is necessarily more than that of the ordinary basket, but wear must be taken into consideration. There are various other modes of constructing baskets, shown at Nos. 5 and 6.

In No. 5 the iron is in two parts, which, instead of being a weakness, as it appears to be, renders the basket strong and durable.

In No. 6 the ironwork is shown fixed by means of a wire rope, so that a complete circle may be made. The cost of the spliced rope necessarily makes this basket dearer, but the basket becomes easier to construct and is less weighty than those already referred to.

Buckets And Baskets 237

Fig. 207.

Rollers (A, Fig. 207) are used for transferring weighty material along even surfaces.

It is always desirable that pegs should be fixed at each end to form handles, and should project beyond the load to be moved, so that there should be no danger to the workman's hands in adjusting the roller.

Levers (B, Fig. 207) are usually made of ash, and are fitted as shown with iron shoes.