Washing appliances may consist of anything from the ordinary well-known wash tub to the revolving machine. Wash troughs, finished in white porcelain or cane glazed, may be fixed against the wall on strong brackets, or supported by iron standards in the centre of room. Glazed troughs may also be placed on brickwork if so desired. Troughs are also made of 2-inch pitch-pine well framed together, supported by wooden or iron legs, as in Fig. 134, made 2 feet 4 inches long, 2 feet 1 inch wide, and 1 foot 5 inches deep, for each compartment. The total height from floor is 2 feet 8 inches. It will be obvious that it adds greatly to the convenience if it is possible for a hot and cold-water supply to be laid on to these tubs, with all waste plugs, etc.; but in an ordinary small laundry the water would probably have to be boiled in a "copper" boiler, either set in brickwork or detached, like Cakebread, Roby & Co.'s "Jack Horner Copper," with a cold-water supply and draw-off tap provided. Where machinery is used, washing troughs are necessary in which to wash a small amount of clothing which has to be delivered at an earlier time than would be required were it to go through the ordinary process, and also for rewashing any article which is still dirty when taken out of the machine, or which may become dirty in some other way. It will thus be seen that several troughs are necessary, the number being entirely regulated by local circumstances and the ideas of the manager. Some laundries use three or four, and others double that number. Where the requirements are large, naturally these troughs will have to be multiplied.

Hand Working Appliances 160

Fig. 135.

Those clothes which are not to be trough washed are placed in some apparatus similar to that shown in Fig- 135, and of which there are several other forms. The "Vowel" washing machine (Fig. 135), by Messrs. Bradford & Co., is composed of only the one case which revolves, and is shown in position for the wringing operation. The drip board at a is placed so as to carry the water which is wrung out of the clothes back into the washing compartment. For mangling, the washing compartment is inverted, so forming a table, whilst the drip board is raised to the upper grooves (b). The rollers are made of sycamore wood, and pressure is regulated by means of a weighted lever.

It would, in some cases, be a waste of good soap-suds to empty the washing machines and fill again with clean water to rinse clothes, and then again to discharge and fill with boiling water to boil and blue, so it is found more economical to have separate troughs for these purposes.

Fig. 136 illustrates a trough made in two compartments, one for rinsing and the other for blueing, with a drawing board between. These are made by Messrs. Summerscales, 2 feet 9 inches wide and 2 feet deep, and either 6 or 7 feet in length, and are of pitch-pine mounted on cast-iron feet. The troughs are also made in single compartments, 2 feet wide, 2 feet deep, and 3 or 4 feet long. Hot and cold-water service with waste plugs may be fitted to these troughs.

Starching is done in a trough of some description, such as that illustrated in Fig. 137, made in pitch-pine and in two compartments. This is convenient, as it may also be used both as a rinsing and blueing machine, and may be fitted with one of the movable wringers. The floor space required is 4 by 3 feet.

Hand Working Appliances 161

Fig. 136.

Articles having been washed, blued, starched, etc., are then placed in a machine which takes away most of the water from them. This machine, called a hydro-extractor (Fig. 138), consists of a perforated basket of galvanised steel wire or copper, which is top hung, revolving round the rim of a cast-iron outer casing. The gear for causing it to revolve is enclosed in the cast-iron case at side, which is provided with lubricating spouts and a lever to set the machinery in motion. These machines require from 3 feet 6 inches by 3 feet to 4 feet by 3 feet 6 inches of floor area.

Goods which simply require a mangle finish are found just sufficiently damp, on leaving the hydro-extractor, to be run through a roller mangle such as that illustrated in Fig. 135. Large pieces, such as sheets or tables-clothes, for which no gloss is required, may be placed in what is known as a box mangle (Fig. 139). This consists of a solid heavy framework with a box, heavily loaded with stone or other ballast, which travels to and fro, and is supported by two rollers which in their turn roll along the bed, generally of mahogany. The roller is removed from under the box by means of a small steel tongue (a) placed on the centre bar, which on being lowered causes the small roller (6) to travel up its incline, so raising the box and removing weight from roller. A table is generally placed near to this machine, and the mangle cloth laid on it. The goods are then placed side by side on this cloth, and then wound round the roller, which is run along the table by the operator, thus winding the cloth and goods round it. The roller is then placed between box and bed, when the machine is set in motion until the goods are sufficiently finished. Three rollers are generally supplied, so that while two are in use under the mangle, the third roller is being filled with material. These box mangles are still used, but are gradually giving place to the ironing machines, and many laundries are without them. The following table gives the sizes: -

Hand Working Appliances 162

Fig. 137.

Size of Bed.

Floor Space Required.

5.0

X

2.9 . .

7.9

X

3.9

6.0

X

2.9 . .

9.9

X

3.9

7.0

X

3.0 . .

11.9

X

4.0

8.0

X

30 . .

14.0

X

4.0