This section is from the book "Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment Vol6", by G. A. T. Middleton. Also available from Amazon: Modern Buildings.
In large towns and others where there is plenty of water and a drainage system is available the usual type of latrine with flushing cistern, etc., is of course in use, and where water only is laid on a septic tank drainage system is occasionally installed. In most country schools, however, earth closets are the only type in use.
Where water is very scarce the roof water is usually conserved in a large circular tank, and used for lavatory purposes.
The following illustrations of schools, although not entirely representative or sufficient, will give some idea of the prevailing styles and types.
The school at Hopefield, Cape Colony (Fig. 303), designed by Messrs. A. & W. Reid & East, is a very fair example of the ordinary village school, and accommodates about 230 scholars in the class and kindergarten-rooms. It is intended to serve a rather wide district, and the completed scheme provides for boys and girls boarding departments in separate houses, each intended to house 28 boarders.
The building is arranged on the corridor system, with separate entrances and exits and corridors for both sexes, and, while extremely simple and plain in arrangement, is a very workable and convenient plan for a school of this type. Airbricks (A B) are shown in the outer walls.
The High School (Fig. 304), by the same architects, has been planned for an important country town and educational centre in Cape Colony. It is representative of the latest ideas regarding the quadrangular onevol storey school system, and may be looked upon as more or less a model plan of the type. The quadrangle is very spacious, and the entrances at the four corners are contrived so as to avoid the collection of stagnant air at those points - this being the principal difficulty to overcome in quadrangle planning. When the whole of the building is completed the classrooms will hold about 400 boys.
Separate entrances and cloak-room accommodation have been arranged for junior and senior boys, and
Design. For. Boys. High .School the headmaster's room and school library are planned in the centre of the front, so as to command as far as possible the whole of the school, and to be readily accessible to parents without interruption to the school work.
The exterior has been kept very plain and simple for economical reasons, the elevations being treated in rough-cast and plaster on a red brick foundation, and the roofs covered with Marseilles tiles. The colonnaded stoep round the quadrangle has a corrugated iron roof supported by red brick piers with bull-nosed angles.
The classrooms proper all face north and east, the laboratory, lecture-room, and workshop having a south light. The future extensions must of necessity face the west.
Fig. 305 shows one of the many Stellenbosch schools, and has been arranged as a Girls' High School. It has been designed by Messrs. Parker & Forsyth.
It is a good example of classrooms, etc., arranged round a central hall, and the entrances and cloakrooms are very satisfactory. As it is connected with a large boarding establishment an entrance has been planned leading from the grounds thereof.
The buildings are more substantially built than is usual for up-country schools, the walls being faced with red bricks and the roofs covered with slates, the whole forming a picturesque and satisfactory composition. As the South African College, Cape Town, has grown
The. Laboratory. Block. South. African. College. Cape. Town from small beginnings, and been enlarged many times during its existence, the buildings generally are arranged in blocks, with or without connecting corridors as considered necessary. Fig. 306 shows the laboratory buildings, designed by Messrs. Baker & Massey, in which are arranged, on up-to-date scientific principles, the zoological, geological, and botanical laboratories. The plan is rectangular, the rooms being grouped round a central hall. The building, although plainly treated externally, is extremely well fitted internally, all the fittings being prepared locally from the architect's own designs and details. The exterior walls are faced with grey - veined Queenstown stone, and covered with a red English tiled roof. Both the external and internal joinery and fittings are executed in teak.
Fig. 307 illustrates Grey College School, Bloemfontein, which is the most important school in the Orange River Colony, carried out under Government auspices. It well illustrates the varying views of the different educational authorities, and is, of course, the direct outcome of their veiws of the climatic and other needs of that colony.
The arrangements are well worth study, on account of the several local peculiarities displayed in the plan.
As the winters are somewhat severe round Bloemfontein, open fireplaces are provided in the class and other rooms. The principal front faces south, as it is not considered desirable in this case that much sunlight should be admitted to the various classrooms. Supervision of the scholars is to some extent sacrificed to free-air disconnection of departments almost on hospital lines.
The elevations are treated in freestone and plaster, and the roofs covered with red tiles. Mr. F. Taylor is the architect.
The school at Parijs, also the work of Mr. Taylor (Fig. 308), is a typical small country school in the same colony, such as is used in many districts where the same amount of accommodation is required, being varied only in detail. It will be noticed that a covered verandah or stoep replaces the English corridor for purposes of communication.
As most of the larger country schools have boarding houses or establishments connected with them, in order to cope with the difficulties of educating a sparse and scattered population, an illustration (Fig. 309) is included of a boarding-house in connection with the Boys' High School at Worcester, Cape Colony. It shows more or less the usual requirements of the Education Department both as regards dormitories, dining-hall, study, and matron or manager's apartments. As it has been designed to accommodate boys, a changing-room is included, which is, of course, omitted in buildings of. a similar character intended for girls.
It is meant to accommodate forty boys, and, as is almost universal in buildings of this nature, economy both of planning and construction is the main consideration in the eyes of the authorities. The planning is exceedingly direct and simple, the kitchen service being particularly well contrived.