This section is from the book "Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment Vol6", by G. A. T. Middleton. Also available from Amazon: Modern Buildings.
According to the older system, an enclosed house and open yard are provided for pigs, whilst the tendency of the present day is to have several pens in an enclosed building. For growing pigs a run must be supplied. In the one case this is met by the foreyard; whilst in the other arrangement the pens may have their door opening into a common yard, or merely on to an enclosed plot of land which can serve the purpose of a stockyard or manure accumulating place. The floor of piggeries is made of concrete, except where the pig is fed on a whey mixture, in which case a hard brick is to be preferred, as the acidity of the whey quickly wears away the concrete. The drainage must be sloped away and conducted to an outside channel. Where a sleeping house is used, the floor is kept a few inches above the yard level. The fittings necessary are few, consisting almost exclusively of the feeding pans, which in some cases consist merely of round wooden tubs or stone troughs. Before dealing with these, however, it may be well to mention that where pens are used a raised platform, of some 4 to 5 inches high, is placed in one corner. This is composed of wooden bearers with battens nailed on, and spaced a few inches apart. For farrowing sows, protection must be made so that they will not overlay their young. This is done by placing a sloped board around pen or house, or by a rail and uprights, 6 inches away from the wall and 9 inches high (Fig. 77).
A corner of sow-house should be cut off by means of vertical boarding some 2 feet high, and the bottom part left open about 9 inches. This forms, for small pigs, a haven of refuge from an infuriated mother.
Where pig breeding is recognised to be worthy of attention, the pigs are fed regularly some three times a day in measured quantities, the food being conveyed in trucks or by hand. It is difficult to estimate how many pigs are placed in a pen or yard, some farmers being of opinion that two in a small pen is the ideal state, whilst others crowd some ten to twelve young pigs in a large sty, and in other districts the regular inhabitants number from four to six, according to their age. However this may be, each pig should have its own trough, as every diner has his own plate. The pig in its greed for food is not particular about keeping its feeding trough clean, therefore this should be so arranged and of such material that it can be easily cleaned, at least once a day, if not at every feed.
Where the piggeries are built of iron it will naturally follow that the troughs will be of the same material. For stone or brick-built styes the trough may be of any suitable material, being built of brick and cement, or of concrete, stone, or iron. The troughs should be placed against an outside wall in the case of open yards, or against the division nearest the feeding passage where pens are used. A section is shown in Fig. 78, where the trough is of concrete 12 inches high by 2 feet wide, and a feeding hole is left in the front wall 2 feet wide by 1 foot 6 inches high. To prevent the food from splashing over the pigs, a stone screen is fixed across, carried by the end walls or dwarf intermediate partitions. Where whey is used for feeding, some hard brick is used, special channel troughs being made in the Staffordshire district, of which Fig. 79
gives an illustration, 9 inches high, 12 inches long, and 18 inches wide, the clear space of channel being about 12 inches wide by 6 inches deep. At each end is a chase forming a key for cement grouting. In outside yards a canopy stone is often placed over the trough, as shown in Fig. 80, which protects the food from being injured by the rain. A shoot is also used into which the food is tipped. The whey, when used, is led direct, through service pipes, by gravitation or pumping action from the whey storage tank, and gets incorporated with the food in the trough.
A shoot of this description, of Straffordshire brick, is shown in section in Fig. 80. It is 18 inches wide and projects 18 inches from front of wall, and has a rounded front and a height of 13 inches, which gives a fall of 7 inches.
The iron fittings are made so as to dispense with the brickwork, although they can be built in conjunction with it. They consist of manger and top shield plate and supports, to which the door may be hinged if required. They are made on two different principles. In one the manger is made movable, and in the other it is a fixture, the mobile part being a shutter cut away from and hinged on to the top plate. The standard width is 4 feet between supports. Fig. 81 illustrates a fitting where the trough is fixed to the shutters, hinged and fitted with a sliding plate latch so that it can be adjusted for feed or supply. It is shown open for the latter.
Another arrangement is to make the covering shutter revolving (Fig. 82), when it is of circular shape. In both cases the trough is closed to the pigs when the attendant is tipping the food. With a fixed partition the trough can be made to revolve (Fig. 83) on its supports. The regulating movement is obtained by the long lever handle, which is detachable and removed when the pigs are feeding. Messrs. Oates & Green make pig troughs in their special clay, of brown colour, a row for small pigs containing 8 compartments (Fig. 84) being made 6 feet long. For grown pigs they are made larger, and in any number of holes.
A special shoot (Fig. 85) is also made in the same clay, which is a very neat arrangement, the food being dropped in on the outside, passing into the trough without any danger of overshooting.