Flannels are often washed by hand in glazed earthenware troughs, or else in power-driven machines such as the " Williamson," which is made of pitch-pine carried by an iron framework. The action of the machine is to alternately press and loosen the flannels placed between the two corrugated surfaces a and b (Fig. 143). The press a works like a pendulum to and fro. Both sides of machine are alike, therefore whilst one set of flannels is pressed the other is loosened. The spring board b gives way slightly to the pressure exerted by the press a, as it is connected to india-rubber springs d by means of the crank arm c. Floor space required is as follows: -

Power Driven Appliances 165

Fig. 140.

Size of Machine.

Fioor Space.

Ft.

In.

Ft.

In.

Ft.

In.

4

0 . . .

6

9

X

3

6

4

6 . . .

7

0

X

4

9

6

0 . . .

8

6

X

4

9

The linens are washed in wooden or metal machines driven by whatever motive power is being used. Whatever the machine is made of, it is composed of two cylindrical cages, one within the other, each fitted with a door opening. The inner cage is perforated, and revolves, but to prevent the roping of clothes the action is automatically reversed.

Washing machines are, however, made of such numerous patterns and sizes that the area required for their accommodation may be anything from 2 feet 6 inches by 4 feet 9 inches to 6 feet 6 inches by 5 feet.

Power Driven Appliances 166

Fig. 141.

For clothing which is specially soiled, machines are made which both purify and cleanse; such is that of Messrs. James Armstrong & Co. (Fig. 144), which takes a floor space of 3 feet 6 inches wide and 7 feet or 8 feet 9 inches long. This machine is made in the ordinary way, with the addition of a ventilating pipe, either connected with a chimney or else carried into the open air, which carries away all odours and impurities.

Power Driven Appliances 167

Fig. 142.

For washing machines, the soap and soda is used in liquid form. A dissolver (Fig. 145), made of galvanised wrought iron fitted with steam perforated coil, boils the soap and soda, and prepares the liquor for further use. Such a tank occupies approximately a space of 2 feet 6 inches by 2 feet 6 inches.

The hydro-extractor in which the liquid is drained from the clothing is, when power-driven, composed of two cages, the outer one made of cast iron and the inner one, or basket, either of galvanised steel, copper wire, or of perforated brass or copper.

Power Driven Appliances 168

Fig. 143.

The clothes are packed in the inner basket, and are thus revolved at a high speed, on an average of 400 revolutions a minute; but some machines run as rapidly as 1100 revolutions, the water draining off through a spout at base and the machine being rotated till water ceases to flow. The hydro is made to be driven in all manner of ways. The belting is connected to hydro, in some cases direct, and rotates the machine by means of a friction cone.

Power Driven Appliances 169

Fig. 144.

This machine occupies an average floor space of 4 feet 6 inches square.

The Tumbler machine is one which supplies the mechanical assistance for a complete machinery outfit. Fig. 146 represents one made of pitch-pine with cast-iron frame. Unlike the washing machine, it is composed of one cage only which rotates. It is made by Messrs. Summerscales in three sizes: -

Power Driven Appliances 170

Fig. 145.

Size Cylinder.

Floor Area.

Ft.

In

Ft.

In.

Ft.

In.

Ft.

In.

6

0

X

3

1 .

9

0

X

3

4

5

0

X

3

1 .

8

0

X

3

4

4

0

X

3

1 .

7

0

X

3

4

and the height in each of these three cases is 4 feet 6 inches.

Wringing machines need little explanation. Figs.

Power Driven Appliances 171

Fig. 146.

136 and 137 supply the idea, which is that of a pair of rollers made of sycamore wood or of indiarubber. They may be fitted on a table or have their iron stand, in which case a space of 2 feet by from 4 feet to 5 feet would have to be provided.

The starching- is often done by hand in a trough, something after the style of the rinsing trough shown in Fig. 136, but of lesser length. The different designs of machine-starching apparatus are too numerous to enable a description of each being given within the scope of this work. Fig. 147 shows a barrel-shaped machine which revolves in both directions. Floor space 3 feet 8 inches by 1 foot 10 inches, height 3 feet

Power Driven Appliances 172

Fig. 147.

Power Driven Appliances 173

Fig. 148.

Power Driven Appliances 174

Fig. 149.

8 inches, while Fig. 148 represents a patent device of Messrs. Hill & Herbert. It occupies space according to size, varying from 3 by 2 feet to 4 feet 9 inches by 4 feet, and is so made that the cover can be easily lifted and goods removed from or placed into the machine without its revolving action being stopped. These machines are also used for washing flannel.

For shirts, collars, or cuffs, where boiled starch is used, special machinery may be employed, the principle being to well rub the starch - which should be always kept boiling - into the linen. Fig. 149 shows a collar and cuff starching machine made by Messrs. Armstrong & Co.

The tank is steam-jacketed, and consists of several corrugated rollers, between which the tapes pass and guide the collars through. By this means the starch is pressed into the collar, the friction being entirely on the sets of tapes which enclose the collars, and all surplus starch being squeezed out as the collar passes out between the last two smooth rollers. The apparatus requires a floor space of 3 feet 3 inches by 4 feet.