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Architectural Pottery | by Leon Lefevre



The resource of the future, then, is incontestably a judicious use of pottery. But we must not content ourselves with copying ancient objects; we must adapt the shapes and decoration of terra-cotta materials to the requirements and taste of our own period. For that purpose it will be necessary to thoroughly understand the infinite resources which pottery offers to builders.

TitleArchitectural Pottery
AuthorLeon Lefevre
PublisherScott, Greenwood &. Co.
Year1900
Copyright1900, Scott, Greenwood &. Co.
AmazonArchitectural Pottery

Bricks, Tiles, Pipes, Enamelled Terra-Cottas, Ordinary And Incrusted Quarries, Stoneware Mosaics, Faiences, And Architectural Stoneware.

-Preface
M. Lefevre's work on the use of pottery in architecture appears at a fortunate moment, for natural building materials such as wood and stone already show signs of exhaustiorl in those districts where ...
-Part I. Plain Undecorated Pottery. Chapter I. Clays. I. Classification - General Geological Remarks
Definition Clays are mineral substances, very extensively found in nature, soft to the touch, yielding under slight pressure, and of very varied colours: white, yellow, red, green, blue, grey, or bla...
-Classification Of Clays
The difficulty of this classification is due to the different aspects in which their chemical composition, physical characteristics, and geological origin may be considered. Authors generally follow ...
-Origin Of Kaolin
Kaolin is almost always found in the neighbourhood of tin deposits; but, with tin ore, there always appear either quartz and granite with white mica, or pegmatite invariably accompanied by fluorine co...
-Origin Of Lehm Or Brick-Earth
Lehm, which dates from the quaternary or modern epoch, covers large surfaces, especially in the neighbourhood of large uneven masses. According to de Lapparent (Trait*š de GeĀ¢logie), the trickling o...
-Primary Epoch. Permian System
Large deposits of clays and variegated marls in Russia. Secondary Epoch Triassic System The Keuper stage of this system is represented by the variegated marls of the Vosges and Moselle; these are c...
-Tertiary Epoch
The tertiary rocks contain numerous deposits of plastic clays, which are especially abundant in the Paris basin, where they are found above the chalk. Eocene System. Eocene Series The Thanet stage o...
-2. General Properties Of Clays - Composition. Physical Properties
Plasticity That is to say that clays are able to preserve the shape which is given them; a valuable quality utilised in the manufacture of ceramic productions. This property varies with the nature of...
-Physical Properties. Chemical Composition. Analysis Of Clays
We have already shown the limits within which the different ingredients of clay vary. In the following tables we have collected a certain number of analyses of the best-known clays. These analyses hav...
-Influence Of Various Bodies On The Properties Of Clays
Potash And Soda These exist nearly always in clay, sometimes as mere traces, sometimes in quantities of as much as 2 or 3 per cent. Washing does not remove alkalies from the clay, and it is probable...
-3. Working Of Clays
This includes the extraction of the clay and its transport to the place where it is to be manufactured. Arrangements for working differ according as the pits are open or underground. I. Open-Air Pits...
-Transport By Tramway. A, Drawn By Men
The transport of clay by means of wheelbarrows is certainly the most onerous method. In all cases where it is possible to do so, a portable tramway should be substituted for them. These tramways (the ...
-C. Hand Traction
Cost Of Extraction The extraction includes digging and loading. In ordinary brick - earth (lehm), a good digger can do 15 cubic metres per day of 10 hours, provided that he uses l'abattage; that is t...
-Traction By Locomotives
It may happen that the distance between the pit and the manufactory is such that it will be advantageous to replace horse by steam traction. This occurs, for example, when a manufactory, in order to ...
-Transport By Aerial Railway
This system is used when the manufactory is situated below the level of the pit, and is separated from it by an excavation. This occurs in the neighbourhood of Paris where, above the plaster-stone, br...
-II. Underground Clay-Pits
When the bed of clay is covered by a quantity of foreign substance too great to be removed, or if it occurs in strata, it is cheaper to work it by shafts and galleries. Previous soundings will have in...
-VIII. Section I. Quarries
Art. 81 (Modified By The Act Of 27th July 1880) The working of open-air quarries requires a simple declaration made to the Mayor of the Commune, and forwarded to the Prefect. It takes place under sup...
-Chapter II. Preparation Of Clays
The preparation which clays must undergo with a view to their use in pottery depends upon their nature, the process of manufacture, and the kind of article to be made from them. We shall only give her...
-Mixing
Hand-Mixing This is done to reduce to shavings the vegetable mould (lehm or limon) used for the manufacture of so-called native bricks. The earth is scraped vertically with the round knife of which w...
-Separation Of Foreign Substances
It is preferable, for many reasons, not to use clays which contain too much foreign matter, - stones, sands, pyrites, etc., - but there are cases in which one cannot do otherwise, and then the foreign...
-Crushing Cylinders
These are used to crush hard bodies, such as limestone or flint, which may be contained in the clays. They should be very hard, and the whole of the machine extremely strong in order to resist the vio...
-Crushing Mills With Central Sieve And Automatic Feeder
The pan is of cast-iron and has in the middle a hollow covered by a sloping sieve, the fineness of which varies with that of the product required. The vertical shaft which works the grindstone carries...
-Universal Pounder And Crusher
These are used to reduce hard bodies to small fragments. They are composed (Fig. 41)of movable cheeks between which the material is broken and reduced to larger or smaller fragments according to the d...
-Addition Of Water To Clays
Clays coming from the pit very rarely contain enough water to be worked as they are, especially in summer; it is necessary to moisten them. This operation is called soaking' or moistening according as...
-Moistening Machines
The uniform moistening of the clay is effected by means of special machines, the object of which is to cause a complete mixture of the clay with water. These machines are especially useful in the case...
-Shortening and Antiplastics
Rich clays cannot be used alone on account of their eminently plastic properties. They stick too much to the moulds or cylinders of machines, and the paste they form with water falls in and loses shap...
-Blending Or Tugging
This is one of the most important processes in the manufacture of pottery; its object is to change the clay or mixture of clays and antiplastics into a homogeneous paste without break in continuity. P...
-II. Pugging With Knives. 1. Vertical. A. Worked From Above
A. Moved By Animal Power As their effect does not differ from that of those worked by steam, we will postpone a description of the inner mechanism till we refer to the latter. The only difference con...
-III. Pug-Mills With (Flatting) Cylinders
We have seen that cylinders are used for crushing the hard bodies contained in clays. For this purpose the cylinders, which are of equal diameter, are fairly distant from one another, and turn with th...
-IV. Pug-Mills With Crushing; Cylinders. A. Vertical Pug-Mills
When the clays contain small impurities such as limestone, lumps of hard clay, etc., it is important that they should be mixed to avoid accidents in baking. As pugging would be insufficient to remove ...
-Chapter III. Bricks
In I of this chapter we shall study the different phases of the manufacture of bricks: moulding, drying, and firing; 2 will be reserved for the examination of the shapes, dimensions, and...
-Hand-Moulding
The installation of a manufacture of this kind requires plenty of room, for the bricks, which are laid singly on the ground, must have the time to harden before being put into hacks. The first thing t...
-Moulding
This kind of work is mainly done by people of Picardy and Flanders. They go in gangs during the summer to the place of manufacture, and return home in the autumn. There are also some moulders of settl...
-Hand-Moulding After Mechanical Preparation Of The Paste
There are some brickworks whose annual production is as much as ten millions, and which are worked by hand. This large quantity of bricks requires a daily consumption of vast quantities of material. ...
-Machine-Moulding Of Bricks
The increasing demands of trade have caused, in brick-making as in so many other manufactures, the substitution of machine for hand work. The invention of the Hoffmann continuous kilns, by perfect-in...
-Description Of Machines For Making Bricks. I. Machines Working By Compression. 1. On Soft Clay
These machines, which imitate hand work, operate upon soft clay previously prepared by a vertical or horizontal pug-mill attached to them. The wooden mould, which has six or seven compartments, is pla...
-Machines Working By Compression. 1. On Soft Clay. Continued
Price And Output The wooden machine in Fig. 89 costs from 350 to 400 francs; the Dupuy machine costs 600 francs and weighs 400 kilos - that is to say, nearly the same as the other. The output, as we ...
-I. Description Of The Machines. Expression Machine With Propelling Cylinders. General Remarks
It is difficult to say under what circumstances machines of this kind are preferable to screw machines; but we can state in what cases they can not be used. If it is true that clay can be used for the...
-Expression Machine With Propelling Cylinders. General Remarks. Continued
Cylinder Machines Combined With Pug-Mills Except in a few cases it is preferable to submit the clay to a previous pugging before sending it to the cylinder machine. Thus a good installation is one in...
-Screw Machines
These consist of a horizontal pug-mill, in which are screws of various shapes and sizes, At the end of the pug-mill is placed the die through which the prism of clay passes. Above are usually fixed on...
-Screw Machines. Continued
Finally, if there is a difficult mixture to be made, or a perfectly homogeneous paste is desired, a pug-mill is added to the screw machine. Fig. 129 shows an installation of this kind. Fig. 127. Scr...
-II. Description Of Dies
Dies are the orifices by which the clay escapes when compressed by the motion of the screws or cylinders. These dies are movable, and are fitted to the machines either by collar-bolts, or nuts and bol...
-1. Hand-Cutters. A. With Movable Threads
The principal parts of these machines are: a framework, rollers, wire-carrier, and a stop-pallet: we shall describe them in turn. The Framework is composed of two cast-iron brackets joined by cross-p...
-(A) Angular Trolley Cutting Machines
These machines act as follows. The movable trolley being pushed against the two rollers of the fixed frame, and the stop-pallet being raised, the prism of clay advances over the rollers, which turn an...
-2. Automatic Cutting Machines
It has naturally been thought that the motion of the prism of clay might be utilised to work a cutter which would require no separate mechanism. It is on this principle that automatic cutters are base...
-General Remarks And The Mechanical Moulding Of Bricks - Choice Of Machines - Schemes Of Installation
When should machine manufacture be preferred to hand manufacture? The question is not always easy to answer. It is evident that the first condition is a considerable annual output, which we should est...
-Rich Clays
These are not cut up, they are passed between cylinders to crush the lumps, then soaked, alone or with anti-plastics; the mixture is then pugged, and afterwards moulded by cylinder or screw machines. ...
-Types Of Installations
The installation of a brick factory depends too much upon local circumstances for us to give precise details on the subject; we must be content with a few general hints. A very common arrangement cons...
-Types Of Installations. Continued
Installation With Soaking Troughs When the clays are rich and require soaking in troughs, the following arrangement maybe adopted (Fig. 154). An endless band brings to the pug-mill the clay which has...
-Stamping
The object of this process is to give to the bricks when they come from the ordinary machines the sharp edges and regular faces lost by them under the manipulations to which they have been subjected w...
-Stamping. Continued
The same maker has thought of moving the mould upwards by a system of cranks (Fig. 164). The cap being fixed, the working of this machine causes less violent shocks than in the previous ones; it can t...
-General Remarks As To The Stamping Of Bricks
It is an excellent method for giving bricks finish and a good appearance, indispensable qualities for those intended for facades, as they must have clean-cut edges and perfectly smooth faces. The pro...
-Bricks. (2) Drying
The object of this is to take from the bricks coming from the machine or mould the uncombined water contained in them. The quantity of this is very variable: while it may be neglected in products made...
-B. Drying Under Sheds
These sheds or hallettes are about 12 feet broad, the posts are 5 feet high, but the length is variable. To strengthen them against the wind, solid stakes are driven into the ground and nailed to th...
-Storeyed Drying-Rooms
These are used in factories containing continuous kilns. The kiln or kilns are placed in the centre of the building in such a way that the heat from them spreads to the different storeys by traps in t...
-Closed Drying-Rooms
Numerous systems have been devised; attempts have been made to use the heat escaping from the kilns by bringing it into the rooms by special arrangements, and by using the draught of the chimney, and,...
-Estimate Of The Cost Of Different Drying-Places. Comparison Of These Prices
The installation of drying-rooms for bricks should be as economical as possible; so we shall use, in the following estimates, only deal of the usual dimensions. It is evident that in places where the ...
-Estimate Of The Cost Of Different Drying-Places. Comparison Of These Prices. Continued
Cubic Content Of An Intertruss Joists. Joists : 20 on the 1st, 39 on the 2nd, 29 on the 3rd floor = 88 at 4 m. = 352.00 388.00 m. Purlins: 9 of...
-Transport Of Products From The Machines To The Drying-Sheds
There are two cases to be considered: (1) when the drying-places are on the ground-floor, on the same level as the machines; (2) when they are in storeys. (1) When On The Ground-Floor In this case t...
-Transport Of Products From The Machines To The Drying-Sheds. (3) Firing
The firing of pottery is the most delicate and the most important process in its manufacture. On the success of the operation depends the good quality of the products which have already required so mu...
-Transport Of Products From The Machines To The Drying-Sheds. (3) Firing. Continued
An equally disagreeable task is the sounding which the cuiseur must make every morning to test the degree of baking of the bricks placed the day before. If he finds them too much baked he will cons...
-Waste And Quality Of Bricks Fired In Clamps
The waste is enormous and the quality of the bricks is poor. The waste is explained as follows: - Let us suppose a mass of 500,000 bricks divided into 60 clamps of 8000 each. First 50,000 bricks will...
-II. Firing In Intermittent Kilns. A. Open Kilns
In order to obviate certain defects in clamp-firing, especially the construction of the foot, and the large waste, bricks are baked in kilns which ensure a more regular firing with less loss. One of ...
-B. Vaulted Kilns
Open kilns lose a considerable part of the heat formed by combustion of the coal or wood. Generally the upper part is badly fired; moreover, the wind and rain, in spite of a protecting roof, have an i...
-2. Kilns With Reversed Flame
In the preceding kinds, the combustion gases and the flames from the furnace reach the chimney by the shortest path. The products to be fired must then be on the direct route. This condition is not al...
-Progress Of The Fire In Intermittent Kilns
Whatever the form of these kilns may be, the fire is always oxidising in them during the filling of the kiln and at the beginning of the grand feu, for during these periods the quantity of fuel is s...
-III. Firing In Continuous Kilns
The principle of the continuity of firing was stated by Peclet, in his Traitt de la Chaleur (3rd ed., 1860), and various practical applications of this principle had been carried out successfully by M...
-A. Continuous Kilns With Solid Fuel. Hoffmann And Licht Kiln
As this kiln is no longer constructed of the primitive round shape, and as the rectangular form given to it by M. Simon, M. Hamel, and others, has been preferred, we will show its working by the diagr...
-Rectangular Kiln
This is composed of two parallel galleries in the form of tunnels with slightly elliptical arch, joined at the ends by a channel (Fig. 217). The arrangement of the doors for filling and of the heating...
-Working Of The Kiln - Stacking - Heating Wells
The first thing to be considered when a kiln is built is the stacking of the bricks. Here once more the nature of the ground has to be considered. According to the greater or less difficulty of firing...
-Transport Of The Bricks From The Drying-Sheds To The Kiln
The most usual method is by wheelbarrows called technically brouette a barque (Fig. 201). They are made in wood and iron, and can carry fifty bricks each. When the drying-places are in storeys, lift...
-Registers
We have seen that the closing up of the kiln at a particular point is effected by means of a register. These registers may be of paper or sheet-iron: they take the exact shape of the gallery. They are...
-Igniting Of The Kiln - Method Of Heating
The ignition of the kiln is effected by heating one compartment by means of firebars placed in front of it; then when the bricks are red-hot, the heating is continued by throwing coal through the hole...
-Enfumage
As we have already stated, the object of this process is the removal of the water contained in green products before they are subjected to a high temperature. In continuous kilns the enfumage is eff...
-Cost Of Firing In Continuous Kilns
In accordance with the remarks made on p. 224, the cost of fuel may be estimated at from 40 to 60 kilog. per 1000 kilog. of fired products, the firing taking place at a temperature of from 1100o to I ...
-B. Continuous Kilns With Gas Fuel. Historical And General Remarks
The advantages gained by firing pottery by the combustion of gases were pointed out long ago by Ebelmen and Salvetat, who had specially in view porcelain and faience. It was only much later, in 1869, ...
-Gas Generator
We know that when a layer of fuel, not more than 6 or 8 inches thick, is burnt on a gridiron, the air passing across this incandescent layer burns it completely, turning it into carbonic acid by means...
-Fillard And Gastelier Kiln
This kiln was invented and constructed by M. Fillard (successor of M. Gastelier at Fresnes), one of the most ardent defenders of gas firing, who has succeeded, after persevering attention, in devising...
-Working Of The Kiln
The stacking is done as in other continuous kilns, but heating wells are not used. When we come to a row of holes, we place the chandelles underneath, the joints arc luted with clay, and the stackin...
-Continuous Gas Kiln With Multiple Firing Chambers
We shall describe one type of this kiln used by MM. Schneider et Cie. in their refractory product works at Perreuil, near Creusot. It is shown in Figs. 230, 231, 232. The kiln has an outside diameter...
-Temperature Of Firing Of Bricks - Its Measurement
Nothing is more variable, naturally, than the temperature at which the firing takes place, considering the variety in the composition of the clays used. This temperature usually oscillates between 100...
-Production Of Kilns Relatively To The Heat Used
The production of a kiln, from this point of view, is given by the relation between the number c of calories theoretically necessary for firing products at a stated temperature, and the number C of ca...
-2. Dimensions, Forms, Colours, Ornamentations, And Qualities Of Bricks - Hollow Bricks
Bricks have always the shape of parallelopipeds of three unequal dimensions bearing a certain relation to one another. Ancient bricks were larger than those of the present day and their dimensions did...
-Dimensions, Forms, Colours, Ornamentations, And Qualities Of Bricks - Hollow Bricks. Continued
Colours The colour, which is very diverse according to the nature of the clays, varies from yellowish white through yellow, yellowish red, bright red, violet, and grey, to dark brown. For bricks inte...
-Qualities Of A Good Brick
Besides the colour, the importance of which for facing bricks we have already emphasised, a good brick should be homogeneous, without fissures or flaws, not frost-cracked, easily cut and very resistin...
-Hollow Bricks
Hollow bricks, first manufactured mechanically in France by M. Borie in 1850, are bricks pierced longitudinally, transversely, or perpendicularly with cylindrical or prismatic holes which pass from on...
-Decoration Of Hollow Bricks
Hollow bricks are often enamelled for partitions or facings of ordinary walls; as in the case of solid enamelled bricks, we will postpone discussion of these until the chapter on Faience. Fig. 312...
-3. Applications - History And Uses. (I) - History
The discoveries of scientists have shown that even in the geological periods, that is to say, long before historic times, the plastic properties of clay were utilised by man for the manufacture of var...
-History. Part 2
Africa The valley of the Nile, in Egypt, like those of the Tigris and Euphrates, offered in its slime deposits materials suitable for the manufacture of bricks. From the raised inscriptions on brick...
-History. Part 3
The Romans, who were skilful builders, used brick in all parts of their constructions. In the walls called medium and small dressed, the masonry was formed of rubble enclosed between two facings of ...
-History. Part 4
Byzantine Architecture As the name suggests, this originated at Byzantium; its chief characteristic is the almost exclusive use of bricks as decorative objects. The materials resemble Roman bricks an...
-History. Part 5
Gothic Architecture In Italy, the change from the full to the pointed arch has been effected by successive transitions, and some churches combine Romance with Gothic style. The north of the country i...
-History. Part 6
Architecture Of The 17th And 18th Centuries Under Henry iv. and Louis XIII., stone and brick were still used for public buildings, and slate was sometimes added to produce such picturesque effects as...
-(2) Use Of Bricks. Walls
The construction is more or less well finished according as the facing is to be visible or not, but the principles on which building is based do not change. These principles are: to raise the wall per...
-(2) Use Of Bricks. Walls. Continued
Paving This is done with special bricks, very hard and sometimes vitrified. Their surface is rough or striated when they are used flat (Fig. 251), and bevelled when placed on edge (clinkers) (Figs. 3...
-Chapter IV. Tiles. I. History
The use of those plates of baked clay which we call tiles, is nearly as ancient as that of bricks, but, on account of the state of ruin of the ancient buildings belonging to civilisations before the R...
-Machine-Moulding Of Tiles
The mechanical moulding of tiles comprises three operations : (1) the preparation of the clay; (2) the formation of slabs or regular plates of clay, the dimensions of which depend upon those of the ti...
-Hard Paste
In this process, the clay is taken almost as it comes from the pit, or, if it is too dry, a certain amount of water is added to it, not exceeding I0 to 1 5 per cent. Under these conditions blending be...
-2. Preparation Of The Slabs
When we work on soft or firm pastes, we use the screw or propelling roller machines described on pp. 114 and 123, with a modified die. For hard pastes we must have recourse to the piston machines call...
-3. Transformation Of The Slabs Into Tiles - Flat Tiles
The manufacture of these tiles by hand is rather slow and consequently troublesome; therefore, in factories with steam-power it is better to use machinery. The expression of the clay is performed by ...
-A. Screw Presses. (1) Worked By Hand
Themechanism of these presses is well known. A large flywheel turns a screw, which has at its lower end one side of the mould; the other part of the mould slides upon a cylindrical iron rod; in order ...
-C. Revolver Presses
The invention of what are called mechanical tiles led to that of machines allowing of a large output. The problem was also solved by Gilardoni, who, by means of some hints given to Jean Schmerber (18...
-Moulds
When the tiles are made of soft clay, the moulds of the presses are of plaster. The pressure and damp soon destroy them, especially the upper ones which transmit the pressure, therefore spare ones sho...
-Curved Tiles
The Dutch cO-shaped face is obtained by a die of the required section, and the curved slab, as it comes from the machine, slides over a mandrel which is lubricated by a current of water (Fig. 405), an...
-Manufacture. (2) Drying
As in the case of bricks, open-air drying-places may be either on the ground, or in storeys. The former are only possible for small installations which make mainly flat tiles. They are mere sheds like...
-Manufacture. (3) Firing
This is carried out in kilns identical with those used for firing bricks, and mainly in continuous kilns, in the case of mechanical tiles. As tiles are of a more fragile nature, they must not come int...
-Installation Of Mechanical Tileworks
Details depending upon special circumstances excepted, tileworks are composed of large buildings in which the ground-floor is occupied by the kilns, machines, soaking-ditches, and deposits of prepared...
-3. Shapes, Dimensions, And Uses Of The Principal Kinds Of Tile
With respect to their shape, tiles are divided into ancient tiles, which possess no sockets and are laid one against the other, and modern fitting tiles. Ancient Tiles These comprise tiles which are...
-3. Shapes, Dimensions, And Uses Of The Principal Kinds Of Tile. Part 2
The Tile Of Martin Freres, Called Marseilles Tile (Figs. 458, 460) The dimensions (.42 x .25) of this are almost the same as those of the lozenge tile. In the middle is a narrow rib enlarged at the b...
-3. Shapes, Dimensions, And Uses Of The Principal Kinds Of Tile. Part 3
Ridge Tiles The simplest are semi-cylindrical (Fig. 485) and of varied dimensions; they are laid down bare, one against the other, and are fixed to the plaster at the bottom and at the joins. The fit...
-3. Shapes, Dimensions, And Uses Of The Principal Kinds Of Tile. Part 4
Mitres, Mitrons,And Chimneys Fig. 547. Fig. 548. Fig. 549. Fig. 549 - (Brault). Fig. 550. Fig. 551. Fig. 552. Fig. 552. (Muller). Fig. 553. Fig. 553. (Monichanin, Jacob). The g...
-Chapter V. Pipes
The use of hollow conduits made of baked clay in buildings dates as far back as that of bricks; this has been proved by excavations made in Asia Minor. The Romans frequently used pipes of pottery to ...
-The Machines Used For Pipe-Making. I. Machines Expressing Horizontally. A. Worked By Hand
These are used in small factories for making hollow bricks and drain pipes. One of the best-known types (Fig. 564) consists of two iron boxes in which two pistons, moving in opposite directions, work,...
-2. Machines Expressing Vertically. A. Worked By Hand
The Joly machine (Fig. 571) is composed of the same parts as the one already described (Fig. 101), but, by a change of position, the die is now horizontal. The cutting-table is replaced by a flat rece...
-Machines Expressing Vertically. B. Worked By Steam
These are expression machines similar to those described in the chapter on brick-making but have a horizontal die. A single machine may even be used for both positions; the Joly machine (Figs, l01, 57...
-Dies
For drain pipes the dies are made as for hollow bricks; for fitting tiles, water-effect dies are used, entirely of metal and the principal parts of bronze; or else the orifices are provided with a lay...
-Pipes Of Special Shape
Expression machines only allow of the manufacture of straight pipes and, by heading the fresh pipe with the hand as it issues from the die, of those having a slight curvature. When the curvature is t...
-Chapter VI. Quarries
The custom of paving buildings with plates of baked clay of greater or less thickness, began with the use of brick; that is to say, it dates from the earliest historic period. The Romans, to whom we m...
-Quarries. Applications
The ground to be paved is thoroughly levelled and rammed down, and the quarries are laid on a bed of cement or, more economically, on plaster. The quarries may be square (Fig. 611), hexagonal (Figs. 6...
-Chapter VII. Terra-Cottas. History
Under this name, which is the Italian equivalent of baked clay, we comprise pottery intended for architectural ornaments, and especially that which contributes to general decoration. The gutter-cove...
-Terra-Cottas. Manufacture
The clays should be as pure as possible, and they are selected and mixed in such proportions as will give a paste easily worked and behaving well under drying and firing. They are then subjected to. a...
-Applications Of Terra-Cotta
It would be presumption on our part to point out the best way of applying terra-cotta to the decoration of public buildings and private houses; this must be left to the talent of the architects and en...
-Applications Of Terra-Cotta. Continued
Friezes, Frontons, Etc Friezes and frontons are perhaps the most extensively used terra-cotta ornaments, and they are made in all styles: simple, original, with human figures or allegorical designs (...
-Appendix. Official Methods Of Testing Terra-Cottas
Specimens Tests of terra-cottas should always be made on marketable products. If it is desired to know as precisely as possible the value of a manufactured article, it is better to work upon specime...
-Appendix. Official Methods Of Testing Terra-Cottas. Part 2
Special Arrangements For Tiles As regards tiles, the Committee expresses the wish, as in the case of roofing slates, that experiments should be made to find out what quantity of water can be absorbed...
-Appendix. Official Methods Of Testing Terra-Cottas. Part 3
2. Resistance To Rupture By Flexion - Bricks The test of resistance to rupture by flexion shall, in the case of ordinary bricks, be made with whole products placed upon two knives .2 metres apart, an...
-Part II. Made-Up Or Decorated Pottery. Chapter I. General Remarks On The Decoration Of Pottery
The pottery of which we have spoken in Part I. has no decoration; Salvetat called it simple pottery. Part II. is devoted to what the same author called made-up pottery; it is distinguished from the fo...
-Engobes, Or Dips
Engobes are either white or coloured. When white, they serve to modify the colour of the pottery to which they are applied. They are made of fine white earths, to which are added a thinning substance ...
-1. Verifiable Substances Entering Into The Composition Of Glazes
Acid Substances. Silica (Si02) And Silicates These are introduced in the form of white sand, used without any preparation, and of quartz and flint, which must be calcined and crushed. These substanc...
-Preparation Of Glazes
This comprises the pulverisation of the substances and the mixture of the powders so obtained. The crushing is effected dry or wet in various machines, mills, or cylinders, care being taken that there...
-Harmony Of Glazes And Pastes
The preparation of glazes and their composition would be relatively easy to carry out if it were not necessary to harmonise their physical properties, fusibility and dilatation, with those of the past...
-Special Processes Of Decoration. Application Of The Glazes
They are applied in various ways : the pottery may be sprinkled with them, it may be immersed in a pulp formed of the glaze, or the latter may be applied by volatilisation. In the first case, the pot...
-Special Processes Of Decoration. Application Of The Glazes. Continued
Transparent Alkaline Enamels Lapis-lazuli Blue. Yellow-brown. Sea-green Jade. Garnet. Ivory. Yellow Ochre. Opaque Yellow. Turquoise. Green. Came...
-Under-Glaze Decoration
The colours, finely ground, are mixed with diluted gum or glycerine to render them more adhesive. They must resist the temperature of vitrification of the glaze, hence their composition depends upon t...
-Over-Glaze Decoration
This is performed with verifiable colours, that is to say, mixed with fluxes which generally vitrify at a low temperature. It is a very easy process, much us0d in pottery, and also by amateurs, but it...
-Other Processes Of Decoration
These are exceedingly numerous, for ceramic decoration accommodates itself to every fancy, and the unforeseen results sometimes obtained add a charm to the decoration. The crackling effect is the util...
-Chapter II. Glazed And Enamelled Bricks And Tiles. History
In the ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, there have been found, side by side with ordinary fired or unfired bricks, others of which one extremity was glazed and even enamelled with different colours. The ...
-Varnishing
Varnishes are colourless transparent -glazes\ generally plumbiferous, which are applied to bricks and tiles to make them impervious and also to decorate them, either simply by bringing out their colou...
-Enamelling
The enamelling of bricks and tiles, like glazing, is intended to render them impervious and to produce a decorative effect by means of colouring. Enamelled bricks are really faiences, and as in the ca...
-Applications. Ordinary Enamelled Bricks
These are of decorative and hygienic interest in the facing of walls. For decorative purposes white and coloured enamels are used. As surfaces of a uniform white are disagreeable and cold to the eye, ...
-Chapter III. Decorated Quarries
According to the uses for which they are intended we must distinguish between - I. Paving quarries, either plain or decorated with dips, without glaze. II. Facing quarries, plain or decorated, glazed...
-2. Stoneware Quarries
Stoneware is pottery made of hard paste, impervious and opaque, white or coloured, covered with a glaze or not. This definition, which at first sight seems clear, is difficult of application to interm...
-A. Fired Stoneware Quarries
These quarries have some of the qualities of stoneware, such as hardness, but their paste is not absolutely impervious, and even when entirely melted always remains slightly pervious. They are subdivi...
-Fired Stoneware Quarries. Applications
Stoneware quarries are used for paving sidewalks, yards, passages (Fig. 737), stables, factories, etc. They are generally 14 centimetres square and 4 centimetres thick; their colour is yellow, brown, ...
-Of Special Clay Firing Into Stoneware. Applications
The variety of designs, their composition, their colour, and the manner in which the quarries are combined, present an inexhaustible means of decoration from which everyone can draw according to his t...
-2. Plain And Incrusted Quarries Of Felspar Base
These quarries are made in France, Belgium, Germany, and Spaifi. They are made of a mixture of rich clays and felspar, to which, for the coloured portions, are added metallic oxides. The factories in ...
-Crushing Of The Primary Materials
Dry crushing is done with the crushing mills described under the head of the preparatory treatment of clays. In the case of white pastes, the use of iron must be avoided, and flint grindstones substit...
-Moulding Of Plain Quarries
This is effected by compressing the powdered mixtures in metallic moulds with powerful hydraulic presses worked in different ways. Some have a revolving table (Fig. 791), and the water, compressed by ...
-Plain And Incrusted Quarries Of Felspar Base. Applications
The manufacture of stoneware quarries with powdered clay was introduced into France by Boch brothers in 1861. Their factory at Maubeuge was then under the direction of M. Simons, who retired from the ...
-A. Quarries Of Limestone Paste
These receive stanniferous enamels which require the presence of lime in the paste in order that there may be harmony between the two. We give as examples three formulae for Paris faience - Bastenair...
-B. Quarries Of Silica Paste
This paste is the base of the Deck faiences, whose brilliancy and decorative effects are comparable to the finest ancient Persian faiences, and which are now freely manufactured, thanks to the generos...
-C. Quarries Of Felspar Base
This is the paste of the English flint-wares; its composition varies within certain limits, but usually it contains - From 20 to 45 per cent, of white plastic clay, which serves as a binding substanc...
-Firing Of The Quarries
This is in two parts: the firing of the paste and the firing of the decoration; sometimes even there is an intermediate firing for the glaze or dip, which is placed upon the biscuit and fixed before d...
-Application Of Facing Quarries
The applications of these quarries are extremely diverse; we will pass over quarries for the outside facing of buildings, as these belong rather to the category of decorated terra-cottas, and we will ...
-III. Stove Quarries - Chimney-Piece Faiences
The manufacture of these faiences has shown great development, not only in Germany, the country of its origin, but also in France, where, according to Deck, a good judge in these matters, it has had a...
-III. Stove Quarries - Chimney-Piece Faiences. Continued
Stacking In The Run Ana Firing Quarries should be stacked so as to occupy as little space as possible. The kilns may be direct-draught or reverberatory. The quarries when fired arc trimmed on the gri...
-Chapter IV. Architectural Decorated Pottery (Faiences, Stonewares, Porcelains)
Under this heading are placed those glazed terra-cotta products which are used for architectural ornamentation, and which are distinguished by their shape from enamelled bricks. The birthplace of thi...
-2. Faiences
The paste used is somewhat fusible; it is coloured pale yellow or pink, more rarely white. According to the effects required it is covered: (1) with colourless transparent glazes (varnishes), which ar...
-3. Stonewares
The use of this material in architectural decoration is, in Europe, of recent date; judging from the results obtained, it would seem likely that this substance will take an important place in the cera...
-Chapter V. Sanitary Pottery. Stoneware Pipes
This is a name given to certain ceramic products used for household purposes, including more particularly pipes of glazed stoneware, sinks, urinals, basins, etc. As is always the case with regard to ...
-Sanitary Pottery. Stoneware Pipes. Continued
In order, then, that the salting operation may be successful, the pastes must be silicious; aluminous pastes, that is to say pastes of basic nature, cannot receive a glaze in this manner. The salt is...
-Sinks
These are made of finer stoneware paste than that used for pipes, for they receive a glaze. The moulding is done by hand, and the shape is usually square (Fig. 906) or angular (Fig. 908) for corner s...
-Bibliography
AME Les carrelages emailles du moyen age et de la Renaissance. Paris, 1859. Bastenaire-Daudenart . L'Art de fabriquer la faience blanche recouverte d'un email ...







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