Ridge Tiles

The simplest are semi-cylindrical (Fig. 485) and of varied dimensions; they are laid down bare, one against the other, and are fixed to the plaster at the bottom and at the joins. The fitting ridge tiles (Figs. 483, 535) are provided with a hollow hump which is placed on a projection at the end of the next ridge tile and so forms a joint (Fig. 484). The overlapping ridge tiles (Fig. 486) are formed of a male end which fits to a distance of some centimetres into the female end to form the joint (Fig. 487).

Ridge Tiles 128

Figs. 483 to 495. Ridge Tiles (Mailer).

The shape of these ridge tiles is very variable; some are pointed (Fig. 489), some are shelving ridged (Fig. 490), some are lozenge shaped (Fig. 534). For fitting tiles hollow ridge tiles are made (Fig, 488), which receive the ribs of the tiles like those of the Muller type.

To strengthen ridge tiles, they are sometimes keyed (Fig. 533); this may be done simply (A and B of Fig. 533), or ornamented to give elegance to the roof. Decoration, however, is more usually added by means of the ridge tiles themselves, which have ornaments on them called finials. Sometimes these finials are part of the ridge tile and are of varied and more or less complicated patterns (Figs. 492 to 495). The last ridge tile, called ridge end, bears a higher ornament which towers up above the crest of the roof. Sometimes the finials are separate, and are fitted into a groove in the ridge tiles; the finial in Fig. 496, the section of which is shown in Fig. 497, and application in Fig. 498, is one of this kind. Like finials, top-pieces are either part of the ridge tiles (Figs. 494, 495) or separate (Figs. 499 to 502).

Ridge Tiles 129Ridge Tiles 130

Fig. 496.

Section.

Fig. 497. Section.

Application.

Fig. 498. Application.

Top-pieces and Supports.

Ridge Tiles 133

Fig. 499.

Fig. 499. (Perrusson).

Fig. 500.

Ridge Tiles 134

Fig. 500. - (Muller).

Ridge Tiles 135

Fig. 501.

Fig. 501. Support (Muller).

Fig. 502.

Fig. 502. Gothic Top-piece (Urault).

Perrusson Ridge Tile.

Fig. 503. Perrusson Ridge Tile.

Perrusson End Tile.

Fig. 504. Perrusson End Tile.

The ends of ridges (Fig. 504) are more or less ornamented according to the style of the ridge tiles themselves (Fig. 503); they are divided into closed male ends to the right and closed female ends to the left. When they bear top-pieces (poingons), they are called poinon-carriers. German ridge tiles are acute-angled (Figs. 480 to 482).

Coping Tiles

These consist of an ordinary tile with a curved end forming a ridge (Figs. 505 to 508); their dimensions correspond to the thickness of the walls which they are to cover. When they are too thick for a single tile, two are placed on them (Fig. 509). These tiles are also made double-sloped.

Coping Tiles

Fig. 505.

Coping Tiles 138

Fig. 506.

Coping Tiles 139

Fig. 507.

Coping Tiles 140Coping Tiles 141

Fig. 508.

Wall with Coping Tiles.

Fig. 509. Wall with Coping Tiles.

Hip tiles are similar to ridge tiles, and also have end tiles.

Border Tiles, Frontons, Pantile Joints

When the ends of a roof form a gable, it is very often adorned with a border of terracotta, which is made up of pieces called border tiles. These fit together (Figs. 5 14, 522, 527), and are called left border or right border according to the side on which the counter-join is; the terminating tiles arc called border ends (Figs. 513, 525, 531), and at the top of the gable the tiles are joined by a fronton (Figs. 511, 524, 529).

Fig. 510.

Border Tiles Frontons Pantile Joints 143

Fig. 511.

Border Tiles Frontons Pantile Joints 144Border Tiles Frontons Pantile Joints 145

Fig. 512.

Border Tiles Frontons Pantile Joints 146

Fig. 513.

Border Tiles Frontons Pantile Joints 147

Fig. 514.

Border Tiles Frontons Pantile Joints 148

Figs. 510 to 515. Pantile Joints, Frontons, and Borders (Perrusson).

Borders are made plain like tiles (Fig. 536) or ornamented (Figs. 522, 527); the same may be said of frontons, and the general effect is more or less ornate (Fig. 515) according to the richness of the pattern. When ornamented, the tiles and frontons are called monumental.

Borders, Gutters, Frontons, Antefixes

Borders Gutters Frontons Antefixes 149

Fig. 516.

Fig. 517.

Figs. 516 and 517. Perrusson Make.

Fig. 518.

Fig. 519.

Borders Gutters Frontons Antefixes 150

Fig. 520.

Fig. 521.

Figs. 518 to 521. Muller Make.

Borders Gutters Frontons Antefixes 151

Fig. 522.

Borders Gutters Frontons Antefixes 152

Fig.523.

Borders Gutters Frontons Antefixes 153

Fig. 524.

Borders Gutters Frontons Antefixes 154

Fig. 525.

Borders Gutters Frontons Antefixes 155

Fig. 526.

Borders Gutters Frontons Antefixes 156

Fig. 527.

Borders Gutters Frontons Antefixes 157

Fig. 528.

Borders Gutters Frontons Antefixes 158

Fig. 529.

Borders Gutters Frontons Antefixes 159

Fig. 530.

Borders Gutters Frontons Antefixes 160

Fig. 531.

Borders Gutters Frontons Antefixes 161

Fig. 532.

Figs. 522 to 532. Gilardoni Make.

A special border tile (Fig. 539) called membron is used to cover the angle in roofs with "comble brise" (Fig. 542).

Border tiles are substituted for ridge tiles in certain special cases as, for example, in the roofs of factories lighted from above (Fig. 540).

Pantile joints serve the same purpose for pantiles as frontons for gables, but of course they are inverted (Fig. 5 10). They are made plain, or more or less richly decorated. In order that they may fit all slopes, they are made in two pieces, which are hinged together (Fig. 528). Frontons are made in the same way (Fig. 529).

Gutter Covers. Return Angle

Gutter covers are similar in use and appearance to border tiles, and the two kinds are interchangeable. Thus the border (Fig. 527} is used as such and also as gutter cover in Fig. 532. The angle of the gutter is hidden by a special piece called return angle (Figs. 523, 530). The gutter covers may be either plain or decorated, and are terminated by end pieces.

In public buildings they attain monumental proportions and contribute much to decoration. Figs. 518 to 522 give the general appearance (Fig. 519), the return angles (Fig. 5 18), the antefixes (Fig. 521), and the panels (Fig. 520) of the gutters of the Law Courts at Havre; they were executed by Muller.