"Mitres," "Mitrons,"And Chimneys

Fig. 547.

Fig. 548.

Mitres Mitrons And Chimneys 176Mitres Mitrons And Chimneys 177

Fig. 549.

Fig. 549 - (Brault).

Fig. 550.

Fig. 551.

Mitres Mitrons And Chimneys 178

Fig. 552.

Fig. 552. (Muller).

Fig. 553.

Fig. 553. (Monichanin, Jacob).

The gutter and antefixes of the Hotel des Telephones in Paris, executed by Perrusson, are shown in Figs. 516 and 517.

Various Tiles

For the passage of pipes, and the lighting and ventilation of lofts, special tiles are made. Such are socket tiles, which have the width of two tiles (Fig. 541) or of one (Fig. 546) according to the diameter of the pipe.

For lighting purposes, tiles are made with an orifice which is covered with a pane of glass fitting directly against the clay, the dimensions and shape being variable (Figs. 544, 545). If ventilation as well as lighting is required, a skylight sash is fitted to the opening (Fig. 538),

Ventilation alone is effected by means of tiles called "chattieres" (Figs. 537, S43), and sometimes the orifice has a clay grating.

Various Tiles

Various Tiles 162

Fig. 533.

Various Tiles 163

Fig. 534.

Various Tiles 164

Fig. 535.

Various Tiles 165

Fig. 536.

Various Tiles 166

Fig. 537.

Various Tiles 167

Fig. 538.

Various Tiles 168

Fig. 539.

Various Tiles 169

Fig. 540.

Various Tiles 170

Fig. 541.

Figs. 533 to 541. Montchanin Make.

Various Tiles 171

Fig. 542.

Various Tiles 172

Fig. 543.

Various Tiles 173

Fig. 544.

Various Tiles 174

Fig. 545.

Various Tiles 175

Fig. 546.

Figs. 542 to 546. Muller Make.

Fig.554.

Fig. 555.

Figs. 554 and 555. Chimneys (Perrusson).

Roofing Accessories

These accessories are of various kinds; first the "poincons," of which we have spoken and which are attached or not to the ridge tiles. In the latter case they fit into the end tiles. When they are placed upon several hip tiles, they are fixed to special sockets (Fig. 501). Clay mitres (Fig. 548) and mitrons (Fig. 552), lanterns (Figs. 549, 550, 551), and chimneys (Figs. 547, 553, 554, 555) may also be considered as roofing accessories; the shape of these varies from the plain upright pipe to the most elegant chimney.

Fig. 556 shows a roof which exemplifies the use of the tiles and accessories above described. The roof, properly so called, is of lozenge tiles, and we see two "chattieres" one open the other grated, a window tile, a sash tile, border tiles with fronton and decorated ends, gutter covers, ridge tiles with various finials, poittcons, and lastly, different terra-cotta chimneys fixed to the roof either by socket or brick masonry.

Qualities Of A Good Tile, Colour

The ideal tile should be as light as possible, while being strong enough to bear walking on the roofs without breaking; it should be smooth, straight in all parts, impervious to water; should have such a surface that water will not remain on it, and should closely follow the line of greatest slope of the roof. Finally, it should not be liable to crack with frost, but should be of a nature to resist atmospheric agencies.

Fig. 556. Tiled Roof with Accessories (Montchanin).

Which tile most nearly approaches this perfect type? it would be rash to decide without careful and comparative experiments which alone could be the basis of an opinion; we can say, however, that the Gilardoni and Muller tiles (soft clay) enjoy an excellent reputation, which is justified by their good quality; that the pantile of Leforest (Pas - de - Calais) is made of hard paste, and is highly esteemed in the north of France; that the Marseilles tile is said to be a good one. The Norman tiles, made at Dieppe and Villequier (Seine-Infeneure), at Argences (Calvados), etc., are principally used in that district.

As for the Burgundy tile (hard paste and firm paste), its red colour and quality make it much admired.

Black Tiles

The colour of tiles depends upon the kind of clay used in their preparation, and varies from yellow ochre to vermilion red. It is important to observe that the well-fired and consequently the best tiles have a less bright and less uniform colouring than those which are less baked. At the present day less importance is rightly attached to colour, which formerly was expected to be absolutely uniform and of a brilliant red, qualities which are incompatible with those of a good tile.

Slate colour may be given artificially; this may be useful for terra-cotta objects to be placed on slate roofings, or in countries where, as in Japan, red is forbidden, but it is generally better to preserve the special properties of each building material than to hide them for the purposes of imitation.

The process for making tiles blue is the same as that used for bricks (see p. 248).

Stoneware Tiles

To give tiles an absolute power of resistance to weather and especially frost, it was suggested that they might be made of stoneware paste, which gives impervious and therefore frost-proof products.

The clays used are similar to those employed in making stoneware pipes. The tiles are made flat or fitting (Figs. 5 5 7, 558); they are laid like ordinary tiles (Fig. 559), combined with ridge tiles (Fig. 560), borders (Fig. 562), end tiles (Fig. 561), frontons, etc., to give an elegant appearance (Fig. 563).

Besides their power of resistance to frost, stoneware tiles have the advantage of being proof against acid vapours, a quality desirable in the case of some chemical factories. Stoneware tiles do not seem as yet to be very extensively used, and this may probably be attributed to several causes: these tiles, although hard, are very brittle, their shape is less uniform than that of ordinary tiles, as they lose shape in firing, and then, unless very carefully selected, the fitting sockets are not as waterproof. But it is probable that by perfecting the methods of manufacture and choosing suitable pastes these difficulties will be overcome.

Fig. 557.

Fig. 558.

Fig. 559.

Stoneware Tiles 179

Fig. 560.

Stoneware Tiles 180

Fig. 561.

Stoneware Tiles 181

Fig. 562.

Fig. 563.

Figs. 557 to 563. Stoneware Tiles.

Particulars Of The Principal Tiles Used In France

Makers.

Particulars of Tiles.

Per Square Metre of Roofing.

Remarks.

Length in Metres.

Breadth in Metres.

Weight in Kilog.

Price per 1000.

Number of Tiles.

Weight in Kilog.

Price.

Modern Tiles with Interrupted Vertical Join.

LOZENGE TILE OR GILARDONI NO. I.

Argences .

O.4O

O.24

2.600

145

13

33.800

1.88

Gilardoni No. 4 (Fig. 440)

....

• •

2.70O

180

15

4O.500

2.28

Gilardoni No. 1 (Fig. 431)

• • •

• •

2.90O

140

15

43.500

2.10

...

• •

3.300

105

13

42.9OO

1.36

Jacob

O.4O

0.24

3.300

110

13

42.900

1.43

Lartigue .

O.4I

0.25

2.900

120

20

58.OOO

2.40

Marseilles.

0.39

0.23

2.600

70

16

4I.60O

1.12

Single covered.

O.42

0.25

2.450

60

13.5

• •

0.81

(Fig. 438) triple covered

Montchanin .

O.4O

0.24

3.100

110

13

4O.30O

1.43

0.50

0.24

5.000

200

10

50.OOO

2.00

Used specially for cover ing walls.

Muller

• •

• • •

3.000

200

13

39.OOO

2.60

Perrusson.

O.4O

0.24

3.150

115

12-13

39.OOO

..

Are made fitting, or wit single or double hook

VILLA OR CHALET TILE.

Argences .

0.34

0.2I

2.200

120

17-18

38.500

2.10

Lartigue

O.30

0.22

1.675

80

20

33.500

1.60

Legros

• •

• a •

1.900

65

21

39.900

1.36

Montchanin

O.28

O.I7

1.500

90

27

40.500

2.43

Pernisson.

0.35

0.22

2.300

100

17

35.000

1.70

BOULET, ARTOIS, OR PAN TILE.

Montchanin

0.28

0.20

1.800

90

20

36.000

1.80

Legros

• * •

...

2.000

65

20

4O.OOO

1.30

Perrusson.

0.29

0.22

2.000

90

20

4O.OOO

1.80

Tiles with Continuous Vertical Join.

GILARDONI NO. 2, ALSO CALLED MULLER OR RIB TILE.

Argences .

0.40

0.24

2.600

145

13

33.800

1.88

Gilardoni No. 2 (Fig. 434) ..

...

a a a

3.300

150

14

46.200

2.10

Montchanin

0.39

O.24

3200

110

14

44.800

1.54

Muller (Fig. 443) .

• •

...

3.000

200

14

42.OOO

2.80

Perrusson (Fig. 456).

0.40

O.24

3.500

130

14.5

5I.OOO

1.88

GILARDONI NO. 3, CALLED ALSO ALSACE OR ALTKIRCH TILE.

Gilardoni (Fig. 437) .

• • •

• •

3.000

150

15

45.OOO

2.25

Montchanin

..

• ..

3.200

110

46.400

1.39

Perrusson

0.43

0.23

3.500

120

13.5

47.250

1.62

Muller

• •

• •

2.800

200

15

42.OOO

3.00

[NORTHERN TILE, CALLED PANTILE.

Legros

• •

• •

1.600

52

22

35.200

1.14

Royaux .

• • •

• • •

1.700

80

22

37.400

1.76

Tiles of Unglazed Stoneware.

Bossot(1).

0.30

0.I8

...

1 90

25.26

...

233

Jacob et Cie. (2)

0.34

2.300

130

17

39.100

2.21

(1) At Ciry-le-Noble (Saone-et-Loire).

(2) French Stoneware Company, Pouilly-sur-Saone (Cute-d Or)