For drain pipes the dies are made as for hollow bricks; for fitting tiles, water-effect dies are used, entirely of metal and the principal parts of bronze; or else the orifices are provided with a layer of plaster, supported and consolidated by a metallic covering which prevents it from bursting under the pressure of the clay. Each die has one or several openings according to the diameter of the pipe to be made. Fig. 581 represents a square die with three openings which is suitable for the horizontal Whitehead machine.

Vertical Direct action Expression Machine (Whitehead).

Fig. 580. Vertical Direct-action Expression Machine (Whitehead).

Fig. 581. Die for Pipes.

Fork shaped Mandrel for handling Pipes.

Fig. 582. Fork-shaped Mandrel for handling Pipes.

The fresh pipes are handled by means of mandrels, which are arranged on a fork and are pushed into the inside of the pipes.

Details Of Pipe And Pottery Machines

Makers.

Number.

Pulleys.

Weight.

Horsepower required.

Production per Hour.

Price in Francs.

Remarks.

Diameter in Metres.

Number of Turns.

Without Moulds.

With Moulds.

MACHINES WORKED BY HAND.

Boulet (Fig. 572) .

... •

• • •

2O0O

• •

4OOO-50OO

• • •

....

Specially used for "boisseaux," "wagons," etc.

Joly(Fig.571)

2

• •

• ...

1000

• •

• • •

• • •

...

Laeis et Cie. .

• • •

• • •

• •

I300

• • •

• • •

1250

1500

Whitehead double-action type.

Whitehead (Fig. 564) .

2

...

...

I500

• •

IOOO-1200

973

1500

Specially used for drain pipes, but also makes other products.

(Fig. 574) •

...

• •

• •

2600

• • •

.. •

1650

2750

Specially used for fitting pipes.

MACHINES WORKED BY STEAM.

Boulet (Fig. 576) .

• •

0.75-0.11

140

2800

3-4

...

...

...

Joly (Fig. 577)

..•

O.60-O.IO

80

2800

5

50-100

....

2500

With a die, maximum length of product 1.3 m. = 4 feet.

Sachsenberg .

I

O.78-O.IO

70

2200

3-4

From 10 to 100 pipes of 5 0 to 600 mm. diameter.

2400

" ...

2

O.78-O.IO

90

3OOO

4-5

2720

" . • •

3

O.63-O.20

IOO

4800

5-6

8500

Whitehead (Fig. 580) .

• • •

...

...

8400

Steam at 3 kilog.

..........

• • •

6625

7 moulds included, for pipes of 80 to 460 mm. diameter.

(Fig .565) .

Albert.

..

• •

1830

2

...

......

1500

" " " "

DETAILS OF QUARRY PRESSES - worked by hand.

Bernhardi Sohn (Fig. 606)

10

• ...

• • •

1300

• • •

150

1200

...

Pressure from above and from below.

Jager (Fig. 604)

455

• • •

...

I200

...

• a a

..

1200

Laeis et Cie. (Fig. 605) .

...

...

• • •

850

...

• • a

800

...

WORKED BY STEAM.

Bernhardi Sohn (Fig. 608)

II

O.65-O.IO

130

4000

4

400

8000

...

Pressure from above and from below.

Jager (Fig. 607) .

128

...

...

• • •

.. • •

400

....

8000

Pressure exerted is about 70 tons.

HYDRAULIC presses.

Boulet (Fig. 791) .

....

...

...

1900

..

8O

..

With 3 moulds.

The pump (Fig. 790) requires 1 horse-power and serves 2 presses.

Laeis et Cie. (Fig. 792) .

I

..

...

1700

Variable.

...

....

1800

Works with a hand-pump.

(Fig. 793) •

11a

...

..

1900

...

...

2600

»» ...

III

...

• ..•

2570

...

...

8200

Works with pump or accumulators (4000 to 6000 fr. with pump).

" ...

IV

...

• .. •

4300

...

...

....

4400

Polishing And Finishing Of Pipes

Ordinary pipes used for drains do not undergo any process after their issue from the machine, except a rough polishing, which is effected by rolling them one by one on a level stone when they have acquired a certain degree of dryness. This rolling at the same time gets rid of the malformations which sometimes occur during drying.

High-class pipes undergo a more complete finishing. When they have acquired in the drying-shed a sufficient degree of consistency, they are placed on a special lathe composed of two rollers, which are rotated and make a certain angle with one another.

The clay pipe is placed on these rollers, leaving the socket outside; friction makes them begin to turn; the length is then tested, and the excess is taken off with a sharp instrument. Then callipers are introduced into the pipe to make the inner surface regular. The socket is polished by turning, and a hollow spiral is marked out with a wooden point on the inside to hold the mortar and increase adhesiveness.

When finished, the pipe is taken back to the drying-shed to complete its desiccation.