When the clays contain small impurities such as limestone, lumps of hard clay, etc., it is important that they should be mixed to avoid accidents in baking. As pugging would be insufficient to remove them, the pug-mill is fitted with a pair of cylinders whose function is to crush these bodies. Fig. 75 shows a machine of this kind.

Fig. 75. Vertical Pug-mill with Crushing Cylinders (Pinette).

The cylinders and the pug-mill are worked separately; the latter is moved from below, and does not differ from an ordinary pug-mill. The clay having been introduced by the hopper above, is crushed by the cylinders and falls into the pug-mill, whence it issues by the lower door.

B. Horizontal Pug-Mills

The two crushers are placed over the entrance to the pug-mill; they may be cylindrical (Fig. 76) or conical (Fig. 77), and arc driven from the belt-wheel of the pug-mill by means of intermediary cog-wheels, or are worked separately (Fig. 77).

Horizontal Pug mill with Crushing Cones.(Jager).

Fig. 77. Horizontal Pug-mill with Crushing Cones.(Jager).

C. Double Cylinders

These are placed one over the other, the use of the first pair being especially to crush and divide the masses of clay, to break up the little hard bodies, and thus to facilitate rolling by the second pair of cylinders.

Fig. 78. Cone Rolling Machine with Dividing Apparatus above (Jager).

When it is required to split up the clay, the rolling machine is surmounted by a special apparatus consisting of curved blades fixed to two shafts turned in opposite directions. These blades pass through the intervals of a kind of comb fixed to the sides of the machine. The clay, having been thrown from above on to a doubly inclined plate, spreads between the blade and the comb, and being drawn down by the rotation, is split up while passing through the hollows and falls between the cones of the roller (Fig. 78).

If the clays contain large lumps, crushing cylinders with points (Fig. 79) are used.

The double roller represented in Fig. 80 has a pair of fluted cones and a pair of cylinders.

The position of these may be inverted, as in the double roller of Fig. 81, which comprises a pair of cones and another pair of cylinders.

Finally, above the Dumont granulating cylinders are placed crushing cylinders to break up the hard lumps in the clay (Fig. 82).

Information As To The Different Machines Used In The Preparation Of Clay

ROLLING MACHINES.

Maker

No.

Rollers.

Pulleys,

Turns.

Weight.

Horsepower.

Output.

Price.

Remarks.

Length.

Diam.

Bricks

Frs.

Jacobi (Fig. 69) .

2

0.35

0.35

O.60-O.I4

700

2

1800

628

4

0.35

O.5O

O.60-O.I4

I700

4

300O

1285

6

0.45

O.7O

0.70-0.20

þ þ •

3500

6

50OO

2028

Jager (Fig. 71) .

1

0.40

O.50

O.75-O.15

130

1600

2-3

8000-1200

1280

The rollers are conical, and the diameter shown is that of the broader end.

2

0.50

O.55

O.9O-O. 15

I50

2300

4-5

I500-2400

1780

4

0.60

O.87

I.20-0.22

I40

4700

6-8

300O-4500

3000

Groke (Fig. 72) .

I0

0.47

O.65-O.I3

150

1520

1-2

• • a

1800

Fluted rollers |

A reduction of 25 per cent, is made on catalogue prices.

11

0.47

• þ •

O.7O-O.I3

150

I930

2-3

• • •

1920

" "

12

0.55

• •

O.9O-O. 13

150

2600

3-4

• • þ

2820

" "

Boulet (Fig. 73) .

• þ •

•. •

. • .

I.OO-O.II

l80

1500

3

7OO-900

• •

" "

Lacroix (Fig. 74)

• • • •

0.25

O.7O

1. 20--0. 11

IOO

2000

5

I500-2000

2800

Perforated cylinders.

ROLLING MACHINE WITH VERTICAL PUG-MILU

Pinette (Fig. 75)

• • * þ

,

...

0.88-0.12

82

I500

2

...

1860

þ

ROLLING MACHINE WITH HORIZONTAL PUG-MILL.

Cone-pulleys.

Number of Turns.

Jager (Fig. 77) .

1

O.64-O.I2

I20

2000

3 4

4OO-5OO

1900

O.64-O.I2

I30

2

...

.. •

O.64-O.I3

I40

330O

6-8

80O-I200

2780

O.64-O.I3

I4O

3

...

þ •.

0.75-0.15

I5O

4500

9-12

I8OO-25OO

4000

0.73-0.I5

I50

Whitehead (Fig. 76)

• • • þ

...

þ • •

• » •

3200

8

IOOO-I2O0

2178

Cylindrical rollers

DOUBLE ROLLERS.

Boulet (Fig. 80) .

• þ þ •

...

...

I.OO-O.II

I50

3300

5

I5OO-I8OO

• •

Upper rollers conical and fluted, lower rollers cylindrical.

Jager (Fig. 79) .

I

0.40

O.4I

0.75-0.15

100

3200

•4-5

8OO-I2OO

2800

Upper rollers cylindrical and with points, lower conical.

125

2

0.50

0.55

0.90 0.15

IOO

5400

6-7

I5OO-24OO

8780

150

3

0.60

0.55

0.90-0.18

115

70OO

8-10

2000-3000

4780

150

4

0.60

0.72

I.OO-0.20

no

9500

10-13

3OOO-45OO

6100

11.20-0.22

140

Lacroix (Fig. 82)

• • •

« • •

• •

I.0O-O.1 1

150

3300

5-6

I500-l8O0

8600

Upper rollers cylindrical, lower per-forated.

MIXING MILLS.

Boulet et Cie (Fig. 21)

Ordi nary

..

0.75-0.11

110-I20

1000

I

3 cub. metres

• •

The output of mixing mills varies wit the moisture of the clay.

Biconical

...

1.00-0.11

I50

1100

2

5-6 cm.

• • •

Lacroix (Fig. 20)

...

1.00-0.11

150

1100

I

3 cm.

1000

Pinette (Fig. 19).

..

...

...

0.80-0.12

160

1000

2

2 cm.

1260

CRUSHING CYLINDERS.

Boulet et Cie (Fig. 28)

• • þ

O.7O

1.20-0.15

90

3500

4-5

2 to 3 cm.

The bricks are taken as having dimensions 0.22 x 0.11 x 0.06.

Joly(Fig. 29) .

• • •

• • •

• •

• •

1400

• •

• •

1500

Johnson (Fig. 30)

• • •

• • •

0.90-0.16

120

5000

6

2500 bricks.

2000

Whitehead (Fig. 32)

I

O.5O

O.5O

...

• •

2800

3

• þ •

1400

2

O.60

0.60

...

...

4000

4

• * þ

1975

CRUSHING MILLS.

Grindstones.

Pulleys

Output per hour.

Diam.

length.

Dimension.

Turns.

Jannot (Fig. 33).

I

I.50

• • •

O.80-O.IO

72

2,100

2-3

• •

1500

These prices do not include packing, which varies from 30 to 50 francs.

2

I.85

• •

I.OO-0.12

66

3.400

3-4

• •

2200

Luce (Fig. 34) .

• • •

• •

...

...

• • •

• •

...

1200 to

Are made with one or two grindstones.

1900 frs.

Groke (Fig. 35) .

12

I.OO

O.25

O.75-O.I5

100

5.800

4

400 kilos

4,500

Weight of one grindstone, 900 k.

Reduction of as on these prices.

13

I.20

O.30

I.20-0. l6

80

10,300

6-8

600 ,,

6,800

" 1950

14

I.50

O.4O

I.40-O.18

75

15.650

10-12

1500 ,,

10,000

" 3000

15

I.80

O.50

I.60-O.2O

60

21,200

12-15

2200 ,,

13,750

" 5000

Jager (Fig. 39) .

I

1.00

O.30

I.OO-O. l8

100

5.400

5

750 "

3,625

"1100

2

I.20

0.35

I.20-0.20

100

7,800

9

1000 ,,

4,875

,, ,, ,, 2000

3

I.50

0.43

1.20-0.22

100

15.000

12

1500 „

7,500

" 3500

Johnson (Fig. 36)

• • •

...

...

I.20-0. l6

136

17,200

10

2000 bricks.

5,500

Whitehead (Fig. 37)

O.9I

0.30

O.9I-0.15

132

7,000

5

• • •

2,500

Packing extra, from 30 to 120 frs.

...

1.27

0.30

I.06-0.15

120

10,600

0

• . •

3,750

...

1.62

0.38

I.22-0.15

108

12,200

8

• • •

4,625

Whittaker(Fig. 38)

....

I.4O

0.40

I.20-0.15

160

18,300

3

...

5,350

Weight of one grindstone, 2300 kil.

UNIVERSAL CRUSHERS.

Maker.

No.

Cages.

Dimensions of

Pulleys.

No.

of

Turns.

Weight.

Horse-power.

Output.

Price.

Remarks.

Diam.

Length.

Groke (Fig. 43) .

1

O.60

• • •

O.3O-O.15

950

9OO

6

600 kil.

1060

These machines are fitted with four cages.

3

I.OO

...

O.4O-O.I9

600

245O

15

3.500 "

2485

5

I.20

• •

O.50-O.22

500

3500

25

9,000 "

3175

A reduction of 25 per cent, is made on these prices.

6

1.50

• • •

O.60-O.25

4OO

5300

35 ,

15,000 "

4325

Jager (Fig. 42) .

1

O.60

...

0.22-0.12

900

IOOO

3

800 "

1185

The addition of two cages costs about 180 to 680 frs.

3

I.OO

• . •

0.25-0.20

85O

250O

10

4,000 "

2810

4

I.25

• • •

O.3O-O.2O

650

4OOO

14

9,000 "

4250

5

I.50

• • •

O. 50 -O. 26

450

5000

25

15,000 "

5250

MOISTENING MACHINES.

I. Simple.

Bricks.

Boulct (Fig. 48) .

..

...

• ..

I. OO-0.15

100

25OO

3-4

...

..

Reduction of 25 per cent, on these prices.

Jager (Fig. 46) .

0

• • •

O.64-O. II

IOO

750

3-4

800-IOOO

750

I

• •

• •

O.64-O.I2

IOO

IOOO

4-5

1000-1500

1000

2

• •

O.75-O.I5

IOO

1300

5-6

1800-2500

1200

3

• • •

. . .

O.9O-O.I5

IOO

1600

6-7

3000-4000

1450

Johnson (Fig. 47)

• ..

• •

O.76-O.16

120

1520

2

2000

775

Groke (Fig. 45) .

1

• •

O.80-O.I5

130

1600

3-4

I200-1500

1405

2

• ..

• • •

0.09- O.I7

130

2IOO

4-6

1800-2500

1685

3

.. •

.. •

1.10-0.18

130

3100

6-8

3000-4000

2310

Whittaker (Fig. 44)

..

• ..

...

O.60-O.IO

...

...

2-3

...

835

2. With rollers.

Turns.

Jager (Fig. 50) .

1

O.4O

O.4I

O.64-O.I2

IOO

4,000

7-9

800-1200

3250

Pulleys of cylinders.

I. 0.90x0.15.

130

2

O.5O

0.55

O.75-O.I5

IOO

6,700

11-13

1800-2500

4050

II. 0.90x0.15.

100

4

O.60

0.72

O.9O-O.I5

IOO

11,100

16-20

3000-4000

6200

IV. 1.00x0.20.

110

Lobin (Fig. 51) .

..

O.60

0.55

0.8O-O.I5

110

1,200

10

30 to 40 cm.

2750

Pulleys of cones.

II. 0.90x0.15.

150

IV. I.20x0.22.

140

Vertical Pug

I. Worked by animal power.

Cylindrical Pan.

Height.

Diam.

Boulet (Fig. 55) .

..

..

..

• •

...

þ • •

• • •

• • •

..

Joly (Fig. 57) .

...

O.80

O.3O

...

..

800

1

I cm.

700

Double-pan blender.

Whitehead (Fig. 56)

1

I.02

0.53

þ • •

..

1

• • •

386

2

1.22

0.53

þ þ þ

..

760

1

400

3

1.52

0.61

864

1

..

450

2. Worked by steam power.

(a) From above.

Bricks.

Boulet (Fig. 61) .

• • •

..

. • •

1.00-0.11

135

• •

2-4

I50O-24OO

• • •

Sheet-iron pan.

Joly (Figs. 58 and 60) -

1

I.IO

0.60

0.95-0.15

55

1200

4

2 cm.

1200

Sheet-iron pan.

2

I.20

0.70

1.10-0.15

60

1300

4-5

2 cm.500

1260

3

I.20

0.70

1.30-0.16

60

2200

4-5

I5OO-2OOO

1760

Cast-iron pan.

Sachsenberg (Fig. 62)

a

0.45

0.52-0.10

100

600

1-2

600-700

780

b

0.50

0.63-0.11

100

700

2-3

700-1200

860

c

0.63

0.76-0.12

100

1500

3-4

I2O0-2O0O

1250

d

• •

0.75

1.00-0.16

110

2750

5-6

2500-3500

2870

Whittaker .

• •

0.60

0.75-0.12

165

• •

2000-3000

1610

F. a. b. Liverpool.

(b) From below.

Boulet (Fig. 65).

• • •

..

I.OO-O.II

120

2000

5

1500-2000

• • •

Jager (Fig. 63) .

0

• •

...

0.75-0.15

75

1000

2-4

500-800

1125

1

...

...

0.90-0.15

90

1150

4-5

IOOO-1400

1375

2

..

..

0.90-0.18

90

2100

6-7

1600-2000

1700

Joly (Fig. 64) .

...

I.20

0.70

I.30-0.16

60

2500

. 4-5

1500-2000

2200

HORIZONTAL PUG-MILLS.

Jager (Fig. 66) .

1

• • •

• •

0.40-0.12

170

1300

2-3

300-500

1200

2

• •

• •

0.64-0.13

170

1800

4-6

800-1200

1550

3

...

...

0.75-0.15

170

2400

7-10

1800-2500

1900

Sachsenberg (Fig. 68)

a

0 40

0.52-0.11

100

1100

2-3

300-500

1170

b

• •

0.50

0.63-0.12

100

1600

3-4

500-1200

1560

c

• •

0.63

0.76-0.13

120

2200

4-5

1500-2000

1710

d

0.80

0.78-0.16

130

4000

6-7

4000-5000

2880