Details depending upon special circumstances excepted, tileworks are composed of large buildings in which the ground-floor is occupied by the kilns, machines, soaking-ditches, and deposits of prepared clay; the upper storeys are reserved for the drying-rooms.

The arrangement of the machines depends upon local conditions. Figs. 414 and 415 are section and plan of an installation, and will give some idea of the arrangement.

At a is the machine for making the slabs, at b and c are two tile presses of different type, one of which can make ridge tiles, which require a larger stroke for the upper mould. Between these two presses stands a tile-lift, worked by machinery and connecting with the upper storeys.

Type Of Installation Of A Mechanical Tile Factory

Fig. 414. Vertical Section.

Type Of Installation Of A Mechanical Tile Factory 90

Fig. 415. Plan.

The estimate of such an installation is -

Movable 20 horse-power engine...

12,000 fr.

I pug-mill with crushing cylinders, 8 horse-power

2,750

I expression machine, 7 horse-power.....

2,050

I double-carrier lever press, 1 horse-power ..

2,000

1 five-sided revolver press, 2 horse-power .

3,500

Matrices, moulds, etc...

1,500

Tile-lift, 2 horse-power...

2,500

Transmission of power...

1,000

Sundaries....

700

28,000 fr.

The Staff required comprises an engine-driver, a man to feed the pug-mill, a cutter for the slabs, a man to take the slabs to the presses, four men at the presses, and three men to put the tiles on the shelves: eleven men in all.

It rarely happens that the manufacture of tiles is not accompanied by that of bricks, therefore it is difficult to fix the cost of tiles alone, unless we suppose a continuous manufacture of them. In that case, the above-described installation will produce daily about 8000 tiles, that is, 2,500,000 per annum, and the cost of 1000 tiles', liberally estimated, is calculated as follows: -

Interest at 4 per cent, on 28,000 fr. = 1120 fr.

3920 fr.

Depreciation ,, 10 ,, ,, = 2800

Per 1000, on an annual production of 2,500,000: 3920/2500..... =

1 fr. 55

11 men at 5 fr. per day = 55 fr., or, per 1000, 55/8.....=

6 fr. 87

Coal, 250 kil. at 25 fr. the ton = 6 fr. 25

12 fr. 60, or, per 1000, 12.60/8... =

1 fr. 58

Oil, maintenance, etc., per day = 6 fr. 35

Total .

10 fr. 00

To this price we must add the cost of extraction of the clay (p. 31) and its preparation, which we estimate at an average of ....

2 fr. 00

Total cost .

12 fr. 00

For a production of 20,000 to 25,000 tiles a day, which corresponds to an annual production of 6 to 8 millions, the following plant is required : -

50 horse-power steam engine, about....

25,000 fr.

Rolling cylinders (these are not always necessary), 5 horse-power

1,800

Crushing mill, 5 horse-power...

3,500

2 pug-mills, 10 horse-power, at 1800 fr.... =

3,600

2 expression machines, 15 horse-power, at 2250 fr. ... =

4,5oo

5 revolver presses (5-sided), to horse-power, at 3500 fr. ... =

17,500

2 tile-lifts, 4 horse-power, at 2500 fr. . . . . . =

5,ooo

Matrices, moulds, etc...

5,000

Transmission of power...

3,ooo

Sundaries............

1,100

Total for machines .

70,000 fr.

Net cost per 1000 tiles.

Interest at 4 per cent, on 70,000 fr. = 2800 fr.

9800 fr. :

9800 /7000....=

1 fr. 40

Depreciation ,, 10 ,, ,, = 7000

24 men at 5 francs a day = 120 fr. per 1000 : 120/22.5.....=

5 fr. 34

Coal, 500 kil. at 25 fr. =12 fr. 50

22 fr. 50 per 1000

22.50/22.5 ........=

1 fr.00

Oil and maintenance . 10 fr. 00

Total .

7 fr. 74

Extraction and preparation of the clay averages......

1 fr. 76

Total cost of moulding .

9 fr. 50

In order to obtain the total cost of installation of the tileworks, we must add to the price of the machines ....

70,000 fr.

That of the building, with storeys for the drying-rooms, the ground-floor being occupied by the kiln and machines, about

45,000

Continuous kiln, with chimney....

35,ooo

Sundries ..........

5,000

155,000 fr.

We must add to this sum: (1) the cost of the land,

(2) the cost of vehicles and horses, etc., for delivery of goods,

(3) the cost of various buildings: stables, coach-houses, offices, etc.

The above figures can only serve as hints, for the plant necessary varies with the nature of the clays to be worked.