The manufacture of stoneware quarries with powdered clay was introduced into France by Boch brothers in 1861. Their factory at Maubeuge was then under the direction of M. Simons, who retired from the firm in 1868 and founded, at Cateau, the factory which is at present managed by his sons. Two other managers of the Boch firm, MM. Sand and Charnoz, founded factories at Feignies and Paray-le-Monial respectively. To these four establishments another was added in 1882, that of M. van Overstraten de Smet at Canteleu - Lille. 'The firm of Perrusson fils et Desfontaines also makes incrusted quarries.

Reverberatory Kiln For Stoneware Quarries

Fig. 802. Vertical Section through C D.

Horizontal Section through A B.

Horizontal Section through A B.

Reverberatory Kiln For Stoneware Quarries 295

Fig. 803.

Fig. 802. Section.

Fig. 803. Plan.

The method of manufacture in the centre of France (Charnoz and Perrusson) differs from that of the North both as regards moulding and primary substances.

The principal centres of the manufacture of stoneware in-crusted quarries abroad are at Saint-Ghislain (Cie. generale de produits ceramiques) and at Chimay; in Spain, at Barcelona (Romeu Escofet), at Valence (Miguel Nolla); in Germany, at Mettlach (Villeroy and Boch), at Jingig, etc.

Generally speaking, the quarries made on the Continent are used like English quarries; only the patterns are different. The black and white squares are the simplest, and form geometrical (Figs. 804 to 806) or fancy patterns (Fig. 807). The quarries with polychrome patterns are of less severe aspect and are arranged in different ways, the commonest being the combination of four squares to produce roses (Fig. 808) or other decorative effects {Figs. 809, 810).

Fig. 804.

Fig. 805.

Fig. 806.

Fig. 807.

Figs. 804 to 807. French Incrusted Quarries (Perrusson fils et Desfontaines).

Fig. 808.

Fig. 809.

Fig. 810.

Figs. 808 to 810. French Incrusted Quarries (De Smet et Cie.).

But a single quarry having a special pattern is sufficient to produce a large number of varied designs, as may be seen from

Fig. 811.

Reverberatory Kiln For Stoneware Quarries 296

Fig. 812.

Reverberatory Kiln For Stoneware Quarries 297

Fig. 813.

Fig. 814.

Fig. 815.

Figs. 811 to 815. French Incrusted Quarries (Boch freres).

Figs. 813, 814, 815, which are produced with the quarry 811, 812.

As we might expect, we find in the Spanish quarries the influence of Arab ornamentations; the firm of Nolla, one of the most important of that country, also produces geometrical mosaics, with patterns inspired by the Renaissance (Fig. 816) and even by Persian art.

Fig. 816. Mosaic of Incrusted Quarries (Spanish Manufacture of Miguel Nolla).

The use of mosaics in stoneware, so extensive in England, is beginning to extend in France, in which country they made their first appearance only about ten years ago. Besides their variety of colour, they have the advantage of very great durability. They may be of geometrical pattern (Fig. 813) or display .concentric circles of uniform {Fig. 820) or varied colour (Fig. 819), adorned with arabesques or flowers.

Fig. 817.

Fig. 818.

Fig. 819.

Fig. 820.

Figs. 817 to 820. Stoneware Mosaics (De Smel et Cie.).

Geometrical mosaics are formed of little cubes of different colours, which are made by special machines; the others are executed from fragments of different dimensions and shapes obtained by breaking plain stoneware quarries. In laying down mosaics we must avoid leaving crevices; this is done by the use of old half-softened cement; besides, manufacturers undertake the laying down of their products themselves.

The price per square metre of pavements of incrusted stoneware (not including laying, which costs from 4 to 6 francs the metre) varies from 10 to 20 francs for the best quality and from 7 to 14 francs for second quality.

Stoneware mosaic pavements cost from 25 to 300 francs per square metre (laying included) according to the richness of the pattern.

II. Facing Quarries

Paving quarries are not glazed. It is true that in the Middle Ages varnish was used to protect the patterns, and that faience pavements were fashionable during the 16th and 17th centuries, but these are exceptions which should not be imitated, as the slippery surface of these quarries makes them dangerous. Their use, however, is distinctly indicated for the facing and artistic ornamentation of walls.

Facing quarries are divided, according to the nature of their paste, into -

1. Faience quarries;

2. Stoneware quarries;

3. Porcelain quarries.

1. Faience Quarries.

The word "faience," first applied only to enamelled terracotta, has been since extended to ceramic products which are not enamelled terra-cottas, such as those English flint-wares which are made of white paste formed of kaolin, flint, and felspar, and have colourless glaze. This same paste is much used in these days for making quarries which afterwards receive different kinds of decoration, and are called faience quarries from their resemblance to the old quarries of enamelled clay. We must then class quarries according to their composition and distinguish between -

A. Quarries of limestone paste (stanniferous faience);

B. Quarries of silica paste (Persian faience);

C. Quarries of felspar paste (flint-ware, iron-clay, etc.).