M. Lefevre's work on the use of pottery in architecture appears at a fortunate moment, for natural building materials such as wood and stone already show signs of exhaustiorl in those districts where they formerly existed in abundance.

The rapid exhaustion of quarries from which we have drawn for years obliges us to get supplies from greater and greater distances, and so to raise inordinately the price of building-stones. We can only replace them by calling to our aid artificial materials, such as iron, brick, terra-cotta, cement, etc.

Ancient examples of the substitution of terra-cotta for stone are frequent in Persia. Jules Laurens and Dieulafoy have shown them to us in the imposing buildings which they have sketched and reproduced from the remarkable ruins excavated on the sites of ancient cities like Suse.

In the Milan district, in Italy, the cloisters of the Carthusian Monastery at Pavia, the Milan Hospital, and many other fine buildings, present splendid examples of the use of bricks and terra-cotta decoration.

Even while the sculptors of the Renaissance were carving from stone the lacework, arabesques, and statues which make the buildings of that period gems of architecture, the genius of the Delia Robias, that family of artists, was achieving a triumph for decorative pottery.

But generally, it is those countries which lack building-stone and possess clay, that especially offer us interesting edifices constructed of artificial materials.

Of all those substances, terra-cotta is undoubtedly the one best adapted for elegant work, and the architect should never lose sight of it, even in the simplest constructions.

Besides the artistic effect given by the use of terra-cotta materials, and due to their preparation and colour, cheapness is undoubtedly a strong argument in their favour.

The resource of the future, then, is incontestably a judicious use of pottery. But we must not content ourselves with copying ancient objects; we must adapt the shapes and decoration of terra-cotta materials to the requirements and taste of our own period. For that purpose it will be necessary to thoroughly understand the infinite resources which pottery offers to builders.

A description of the processes of manufacture will therefore be of undoubted interest. This M. Lefevre appreciates, and in his book he studies step by step the manufacture and applications of all the ceramic products used in architecture. From the common brick, to terra-cotta enamelled in brilliant colours, and including tiles, quarries, etc., everything is carefully described in detail.

This book will, without any doubt, be profitably studied by manufacturers, builders, and architects, in a word by all who are interested in architecture.

J. C. Formige,

Architect to the Government and to the City of Pans.

Translators' Preface

The principal difficulty in the translation of a work which abounds in technical details is the correct interpretation of technical terms.

In "La Ceramique du Batiment" there occur several names for which there is no English equivalent, that is to say, no technical expression generally used and understood by the English potter. Among such may be mentioned the terms "Enfumage," "Petit Feu," and "Grand Feu" in the description of kilns. We have preferred to leave these and most similar names in the original French rather than to attempt an English rendering which could only be clumsy and inaccurate.

Some machines and processes have different names in different districts but no definite designation common to the whole trade; to these we have endeavoured to give names which, while not perhaps strictly technical, will sufficiently explain their nature to all readers.

Thus to the machine called a "Tailleuse" in French we have, on the advice of a leading firm of brick-makers, affixed the name "Mixing Mill".

To mark the distinction between a "Tuile " and a "Carriere" we have translated the latter as a "Quarry," although the term "tile " would be equally applicable to it as to the former.

Similarly "vernis" has been translated "varnish" to distinguish it from other glazes, notwithstanding the fact that the word would not be commonly used in this sense.

We are indebted to several firms of brick and tile makers for kind advice, which we hereby gratefully acknowledge.

The work of M. Lefevre is, however, so comprehensive and of such magnitude that it has not been possible for us to obtain information as to all the processes described in it, and there may be some terms which might have been rendered with more technical accuracy.

In spite of such shortcomings, we shall venture to hope that our translation may prove as clear and readable as the subject-matter undoubtedly is instructive.

K. H. B. And W. M. B.

The Metric And British Systems. Table Of Comparison

Money

1 d = 25 francs.

1 franc = 9 1/2d., about. 1 franc = 100 centimes.

Weight

I gramme = 15.43 grains. 28 1/3 grammes = 1 ounce av. 1 kilogramme = 1000 grammes = 2.20 lbs. av.

Length

1 metre = 100 centimetres = 39.37 inches Roughly speaking, 1 metre = a yard and a tenth. 1 centimetre = four-fifths of an inch. 1 kilometre = 1000 metres = five-eighths of a mile.

Metres.

Decimetres.

Centimetres.

Milli- metres.

Inches.

.OOI

.OI

.1

I

.039

.002

.02

.2

2

.079

.003

.03

•3

3

.Il8

.004

.04

•4

4

•157

.005

.05

•5

5

.197

.006

.06

.6

6

.236

.007

.07

•7

7

.276

.008

.08

.8

8

.3I5

.009

.09

•9

9

•354

.OI

.1

1

10

• 394

.02

.2

2

20

.787

.03

•3

3

30

1.181

.04

•4

4

40

1.575

.05

5

5

50

1.968

Metres.

Decimetres.

Centimetres.

Milli-metres.

Inches.

.06

.6

6

60

2.362

.07

•7

7

70

2.756

.08

.8

8

80

3.150

.09

•9

9

90

3.543

.1

I

IO

IOO

3.94

.2

2

20

200

7.87

•3

3

30

3OO

II.81

•4

4

40

400

15.75

5

5

50

500

19.69

.6

6

60

6O0

23.62

7

7

70

700

27.56

.8

8

80

800

3150

•9

9

90

900

35.43

1

10

IOO

IOOO

39.37