In wrought-iron the loss is about 15 per cent. In steel the strength of the rivets will depend greatly upon the composition and nature of the steel itself, but in order to be able to rivet, the steel will necessarily have to be of a mild character. The safe values given in Table IV, for compression and shearing of wrought-iron and steel, can therefore be used with perfect safety.

When calculating bending-moments on rivets, a modulus of rupture 25 per cent greater than given in Table IV may be used, as the rivet-heads answer the same purpose as nuts and heads on pins in holding together the plates which are pulling in opposite directions, and thus reducing the bending-moment by friction. In Figuring the number of rivets required an architect should err on the side of liberality, rather than to stint them, as there will necessarily be more or less of them poorly driven. He should particularly do this where strains are small and the number of rivets required are few, as one weak rivet in a small lot would quickly diminish the factor-of-safety, where in a large lot it would scarcely vary it appreciably.

Steel rivets damaged.

Use larger modulus of rupture.

1The in minimun distance, from inside face of one Leg of an angle iron to centre of nearest rivet-hole, in other leg, should be all least 1 1/4 for 1" diameter rivet; 1 1/8 " for "diameter rivet; 1" for 3/4" diameter rivet; 7/8" for 5/8" diameter rivet ; 13-16" for 1/2" diameter rivet ; and if possible these distances should be increased.

Of course the more rivets there are, the more will the plates be injured and cut away; this loss, however, can be largely overcome by what is called " chain-riveting," or "zig-zag" riveting, and by making the laps or cover-plates pointed.

Chain riveting consists of placing the alternate rivets on different lines instead of all on one line, see Figure 164. This again is called zig-zag if they alternate as shown.1 A cross-cut through this plate at any point can only pass through two rivets if chain-riveted or through one rivet-hole if zig-zag riveted; so that the plate is only weakened by two or one rivet-hole, respectively, while it may have a large number of rivets.

Chain, zig-zag or staggered.

Fig. 164.

Where plates are lapped or joined by cover-plates, the rivets have to transfer the full strain from one plate to the other (in case of a lap) ; or from one plate to the cover-plate and from that to the other plate (in case of cover-plates). Of course, it can be readily seen that this means a large number of rivet-holes and a very great weakening of the plates. If it were practical to suddenly enlarge the plate at the riveting point there would be no loss, but this would be clumsy and besides it would not be practicable to roll plates with certain points enlarged or thickened. As the whole plate, however, will be equal only to its strength at its least cross-section the rivets should be so disposed as to weaken the plate as little as possible. This is done by pointing the plate ends in the case of lapping, or the ends of cover-plates where these are used, and are not covered in the construction. Where the plates are to be ultimately hidden out of sight, this expense is saved, the plate ends are left square, but the rivets are placed pointedly or pyramidically.

Thus, in Figure 165 is shown a lapped joint with staggered rivets; we will suppose that calculation has shown the necessity of nine rivets to equal the tensional strain on each plate. The under plate A is dotted, the upper plate B drawn with full lines. By arranging the rivets as shown in Figure 165, each plate is weakened only by one rivet-hole. (As already explained the plates themselves need not necessarily be pointed, but can be left square, if expense must be considered and looks are no object.) For, while a section at C shows plate A weakened by two rivet-holes (Nos. 2 and 3) it must be remembered that the strain on A is no longer the full strain, but has been diminished by an amount equal to the work that would have come on the one rivet-hole; for rivet No. 1 has already transferred this amount to plate B. Similarly while a cut at D shows three rivet-holes (Nos. 4, 5 and 6) the plate is really not weakened at all here, for an amount of strain equal to what would have come on the metal taken from these rivet-holes has already been transferred to plate B by rivets Nos. 1, 2 and 3.

Plates weakened by holes.

Lapped joints.

1 Most mills use the term "staggered" in place of "zig-zag," but for convenience in writing the writer prefers to use the term staggered to mean zig-zag rivets placed pyramidically.

Similarly as the strain on B increases the rivet-holes in it diminish till at No. 9, plate B has got the full strain and is therefore only weakened by this one rivet-hole.

The disadvantage of lapping plate ends is obvious, as the plate would not continue in the same plane. For this reason joints are generally made by butting the ends of the plates and covering one or both sides with cover-plates. The principle of riveting is the same as for lapped joints, but it will require a different disposition of the rivets, and twice the number of rivets, as plate A (Figure 166) has to transfer its strain to the cover-plate by one series of nine rivets, and the cover-plate transfers it to plate B by another series of nine rivets. This can be readily seen in Figure 166. In this case the disposition of the rivets requires an extra rivet each side, or 20 in all.

Where it is not necessary to keep plates A and Bin the same plane it would be cheaper and better of course to lap them, rather than to use one cover-plate. If. however, two cover-plates can be used, one on top of the plates and the other under them, the advantage is very great, as the strain will be transmitted in a direct line or plane from plate A to plate B, and besides this the joint is greatly strengthened by the friction between the cover-plates and plates A and B. In an experiment made by Clark with three 5/8 inch thick plates riveted with one 7/8 inch rivet through an oblong hole, it was found that friction added about 5 tons resistance against pulling out the centre plate. This would seem to add a safe-strength to