WOODS.

Compression.

Tension.

Shearing.

Modulus of Rupture.

Modulus of

Elasticity.

e

Weight per Cubic ft.

Ultimate c

Safe c/f

Ultimate t

Safe t/f

Ultimate g or g1

Safe g/f or g1/f

Ultimate k

Safe k/f

Acacia............

____________

___

11000

1100

___

- -

7000

1400

1150000

48

Alder.......................

6000

700

9500

1000

_ - - _

- -

4000

800

800000

38

Apple.............

___

___

13000

1300

___

- -

4500

900

- -

50

Ash, English..........

8000

800

10500

1000

___

- -

7800

1300

1200000

48

,,

American.........

8000

800

11000

1100

g1

=

650

65

8000

1350

1250000

40

,,

,,

across........

2060

200

___

___

g

=

6000

600

- -

-

- -

___

,,

Canadian..............

5000

500

6500

650

g1

=

1400

140

5000

850

1000000

38

Bamboo...........

___

___

6000

600

___

- -

- -

___

___

25

Baywood..........

7200

720

10500

1000

___

- -

- -

- -

___

- -

Beech............

8000

800

8000

800

g

=

5000

500

6000

1000

1350000

48

Birch, English.........

5000

500

10000

1000

___

- -

6000

1000

1250000

47

,,

American...........

8500

850

10000

1000

g1

=

650

65

5800

950

1300000

43

,,

,,

across.......

1800

180

___

___

=

5t,00

550

- -

- -

- -

- -

Box...........

10000

1000

15000

1500

___

- -

7500

1250

2000000

62

Cendar........

6000

600

8000

800

___

- -

7000

800

500000

41

",,

across........

1950

200

___

___

g

=

1400

140

- -

- -

- -

- -

Cherry...........

8000

800

___

___

___

- -

4500

900

1200000

40

,,

across.........

2400

240

___

___

g

=

2900

290

- -

- -

- -

- -

Chestnut, American.........

5300

530

8500

850

g1

=

700

70

5400

900

750000

41

,,

,,

across....

840

84

___

___

g

=

1500

150

___

- -

___

- -

,,

English..........

___

___

10000

1000

___

- -

8000

800

1000000

38

Crab ..............

6800

680

___

___

___

- -

4500

750

- -

___

Deal ................

6000

600

8500

850

g1

=

625

60

4800

800

- -

30

Ebony.............

18000

1800

18000

1800

g

=

7500

750

18000

2000

- -

76

Elde..................

8700

870

10000

1000

___

- -

4500

900

- -

43

Elm, English..........

8000

800

8000

800

g1

=

1200

120

5000

800

700000

35

,,

,,

accoss...........

___

___

___

___

g

=

3000

300

- -

-

___

- -

,,

Canadian..................

8500

850

9000

900

g1

=

1400

140

9000

900

2000000

47

,,

,,

across.........

___

___

___

___

g

=

5000

500

- -

- -

- -

- -

Fir, Riga............

6000

600

7500

750

___

___

7000

700

870000

40

",,

New Ingland.............

6700

670

7500

750

g1

=

690

70

4000

800

l1000000

40

,,

,,

across..............

1200

120

690

70

___

___

- -

- -

- -

- -

WOODS.

Compression.

Tension.

Shearing.

Modulus of Rupture.

Modulus of

Elasticity. e

Weight per Cubic ft.

Ultimate c

Safe c/f

Ultimate t

Safe t/f

Ultimate g or g1

Safe g/f or g1

Ultimate k

Safe k/f

Greenheart........

13000

1300

8000

800

__

-

9500

950

1500000

65

Gum..........

7000

700

10500

1000

5900

600

6000

900

1400000

62

Hazel............

__

-

12000

1200

__

-

-

-

-

___

Hawthorn.........

__

-

7500

750

____

-

-

-

-

-

Hemtock..........

4500

450

7000

700

g1

=

500

50

4500

750

800000

26

,,

across..............

600

60

550

55

g

=

2750

275

___

___

___

___

Hickory, American..........

9500

1000

10000

1000

___

__

8000

1000

1100000

50

,,

,,

across.....

3000

300

__

__

g

=

6500

650

___

___

___

___

Holly.............

5250

6-'5

10500

1000

___

-

4500

900

-

-

Horn beam............

6000

660

14000

1400

-

-

6000

1000

750000

47

Jugeb.........

__

-

12500

1250

-

-

___

___

___

Lancewood........

-

-

18000

1800

-

-

-

-

___

52

Larch...............

4500

450

7000

700

g1

=

1300

130

5500

700

1000000

35

,,

across........

1300

130

1300

130

g

=

3000

300

-

___

__

___

Lignum-vitae..........

9900

1000

10000

1000

___

___

8000

1000

___

___

Locust, American.........

10000

1000

12000

1200

g1

=

1150

120

10000

1100

1500000

46

,,

,,

across......

3000

300

-

__

g

=

7200

720

___

___

Mahogany ..............

8200

820

11000

1100

_______

___

6000

1000 '

1200000

43

,,

across.........

2400

240

__

__

-

-

__

-

___

-

Maple...........

6500

650

8000

800

g1

=

450

45

7000

700

877000

45

,,

across.............

1875

200

-

__

g

=

6000

600

___

___

___

Oak, American, Red.......

6000

600

8000

800

g1

=

750

75

6500

800

1200000

52

,,

,,

White.........

7200

720

11000

1100

g1

=

800

80

7200

1100

900000

52

,,

,,

,,

across

2400

240

2300

230

g

=

4400

440

-

___

__

-

,,

Black bog.......

-

-

7700

770

___

-

-

__

__

-

,,

Canadian........

6000

600

7500

750

__

___

7000

750

___

54

,,

Dantzic...........

7500

750

6000

600

g

=

2300

230

6000

800

1105000

47

,,

English...........

8300

830

12000

1200

g1

=

2316

230

6S00

1100

873000

54

,,

,,

across.........

1800

200

2400

240

g1

=

4000

400

___

___

___

___

,,

Live.........

6850

700

11000

1100

g1

=

700

70

7300

1100

___

69

,,

,,

across............

4500

450

-

__

g

=

8500

850

___

___

-

___

WOODS.

Compression.

Tension.

Sliearing.

Modulus of Rupture.

Modulus of

Elasticity.

e

Weight per Cubic ft.

Ultimate c

Safe c/f

Ultimate t

Safe t/f

Ultimate g or g1

Safe g/forg1/f

Ultimate k

Safe k/f

Pear.............

7500

750

8000

800

-

-

3400

700

800000

42

Pine, American yellow........

5400

640

9000

900

-

-

6000

800

1100000

34

,,

,,

"

across

-

-

-

-

g

=

4800

500

-

-

__

_ _

,,

,,

red .........

6500

650

9000

900

g1

=

650

63

6100

800

900000

36

,,

,,

white......

6500

550

9000

900

g1

=

450

45

4000

900

850000

28

,,

,,

,,

across

700

70

550

60

g

=

2500

250

-

-

__

___

,,

Canadian yellow........

6300

530

6000

600

g1

=

350

40

4800

600

1000000

33

,,

,,

,,

across.

1425

150

___ -

-

g

=

4300

430

-

-

-

Pine, Georgia yellow........

7400

750

12000

1200

g1

=

600

50

7200

1200

1200000

48

,,

Georgia Yellow across

1850

200

_

___

g

=

5700

570

___

_

__

__

,,

Pitch........

8000

900

10000

1000

g1

=

510

50

6600

1000

1225000

65

,,

,,

across........

__

-

-

-

g

=

5000

500

-

-

___

__

Plum........

9000

900

8000

800

-

7000

900

__

45

Poon.........

__

-

9000

900

-

-

8000

900

160000

__

Poplar (white wood)...........

5000

600

5500

550

g1

=

400

40

4500

600

762000

27

,,

across........

1000

100

1800

180

g

=

4400

440

-

-

___

__

Redwood, California..........

6000

600

7300

750

-

4500

750

___

23

Spruee.....................

6500

650

10000

1000

g1

=

400

40

4400

1000

850000

30

,,

across...........

750

75

650

60

g

=

3600

360

-

_

___

-

Syceamore.............

8100

810

10000

1000

-

-

6000

1000

1000000

40

Teak.................

12000

1200

14000

1400

-

-

8000

1300

1400000

46

Walnut............

7000

700

8000

800

-

-

5500

800

900000

39

,,

across.........

2100

210

-

-

9

=

4000

400

-

__

__

39

Willow............

6000

600

8500

850

-

-

4500

800

566000

25

Yew............

-

-

6000

600

-

-

7000

700

__

50

METALS.

Compression.

Tension.

Shearing.

Modulus of Rupture.

Modulus of

Elasticity.

e

Weight per Cubic ft.

Ultimate c

Safe c/f

Ultimate t

Safe t/f

Ultimate g or g1

Safe g/f or g1

Ultimate k

Safe k/f

Aluminium bronze......

130000

25000

73000

12000

-

-

-

-

-

-

Antimony, cast..........

-

-

1100

200

-

-

-

-

-

418

Bismuth.............

-

-

3200

500

-

-

-

-

-

614

Brass, yellow, cast.......

80000

8000

28000

4500

37000

0000

20000

5000

9000000

506

,,

-

-

80000

8000

-

-

-

-

14000000

530

,,

,,

annealed..........

-

-

50000

5000

-

-

-

-

-

-

Bronze, gun-metal.............

120000

25000

32000

8000

-

-

53000

12500

10000000

529

,,

wire, unannealed.........

-

-

150000

30000

-

-

-

-

10000000

520

,,

,,

annealed..........

-

-

63000

13000

-

-

-

-

-

-

Copper, pure cast............

117000

25000

30000

10000

33000

11000

22000

7000

10000000

543

,,

cast........

-

-

25000

8000

-

-

-

-

-

-

,,

sheet wrought........

103000

21000

31000

11000

-

-

-

-

15000000

556

,,

wire, unannealed.......

-

-

63000

20000

-

-

-

-

18000000

-

,,

,,

annealed............

-

-

36000

12000

-

-

-

-

-

-

,,

bolts.........

-

-

32000

11000

-

-

-

-

-

556

Gold, cast.......

-

-

20000

5000

-

-

-

-

-

1204

,,

wire, unannealed..........

-

-

30000

7500

-

- .

-

-

-

1217

,,

,,

annealed...........

-

-

5000

1250

-

-

_

-

-

-

Iron, cast, Am,, 1" thick...

85000

15000

16500

2500

18000

2500

40000

5000

15000000

454

,,

,,

English..........

70000

13000

13000

2000

14000

2000

30000

4000

12000000

450

,,

wrought, American..

47000

12000

50000

12000

40000

8000

40000

120 0

27000000

483

,,

,,

English..........

35000

9000

45000

11000

30000

7000

31000

10000

260000000

480

,,

corrugated............

-

-

-

-

-

-

40000

10000

-

-

,,

wire ropes, unannealed..

-

-

80000

20000

-

-

-

-

25300000

480

,,

,,

"

annealed.....

-

-

50000

12000

-

-

-

-

15000000

-

,,

chains.............

-

-

35000

9000

-

-

-

-

-

-

,,

welded with steel, 5 ply..

-

-

55500

14000

-

-

-

-

-

-

METALS.

Compression.

Tension.

Shearing.

Modulus of Rupture.

Modulus of

Elasticity.

e

Weight per Cubic ft.

Ultimate c

Safe c/f

Ultimate t

Safe t/f

Ultimate g or g1

Safe g/f or g1/f

Ultimate k

Safe k/f

Lead, sheet ........

-

-

2500

500

-

-

-

-

-

-

,,

cast.....

7700

1200

2000

400

-

-

-

-

720000

712

,,

drawn pipe.......

-

-

1700

350

-

-

-

-

-

709

,,

wire.....

-

-

1400

300

-

-

-

-

-

-

Mercury at 32o ............

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

851

Nickel.......

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

488

Palladium, wire

-

-

50000

10000

-

-

-

-

-

-

,,

drawn........

-

-

26000

5200

-

-

-

-

-

-

,,

annealed...........

-

-

7100

1500

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pewter.........

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

453

Platinum, wire, unannealed...

-

-

55000

11000

-

-

-

-

1360

,,

,,

annealed.....

-

-

25000

5000

-

-

-

-

-

1379

Plumbago..........

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

142

Silver, cast......

-

-

41000

8000

-

-

-

-

-

655

,,

annealed.........

-

-

4300

900

-

-

-

-

-

658

,,

wire, unannealed........

-

-

38000

7600

-

-

-

-

Solder, soft.....................

-

-

7500

1200

-

-

-

-

-

-

Steel. American, wrought.

90000

15000

108000

18000

75000

12000

100000

16000

20000000

488

,,

English ...................

-

-

95000

15000

65000

10000

80000

13000

28000000

490

,,

wire, unannealed........

-

-

160000

25000

-

-

-

-

-

490

,,

,,

annealed..............

-

-

80000

13000

-

-

-

-

-

-

,,

rope, galvanized............

-

-

6700

1200

-

-

-

-

-

-

chains...........

-

-

42000

8500

-

-

-

-

-

-

,,

cast..............

150000

25000

85000

15000

57000

10000

125000

15000

30000000

-

,,

welded hard & soft, 5 ply

-

-

63300

15000

-

-

-

-

-

Tin, cast...........

15500

2500

5500

1000

-

-

4000

1000

4000000

462

,,

wire..................

-

-

7000

1200

-

-

-

-

-

-

METALS.

Compression.

Tension.

Shearing.

Modulus of Rupture.

Modulus of

Elasticity.

e

Weight per Cubic ft.

Ultimate c

Safe c/f

Ultimate t

Safe t/f

Ultimate g or g1

Safe g/f or g1/f

Ultimate k

Safe k/f

Zinc.........

-

-

12000

2000

-

-

-

-

13500000

449

,,

wire........

-

-

20000

3300

-

-

-

-

-

-

,,

cast........

40000

7000

3300

600

-

-

7500

1200

-

438

MISCELLANEOUS.

Bone.......

-

-

5000

500

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cement, Portland.........

3000

300

500

50

-

-

900

90

800000

81

Glass, common green......

28000

1500

2850

300

-

-

4000

400

8000000

173

,,

crystal........

17000

1000

2413

240

-

-

-

-

5800000

157

,,

flint.......

25000

1400

2300

230

-

-

-

-

-

-

,,

white crown.....

30000

1000

2500

250

-

-

-

-

-

-

,,

plate.........

-

-

5000

500

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ice, 32°.............

230

20

-

-

-

-

-

-

6000000

57

Ivory.........

-

-

16000

1600

-

-

-

-

-

114

Limestone.........

7000

700

1000

100

-

-

1500

150

3300000

146

Marble, Itlaian.........

12000

1200

700

70

-

-

2080

200

2500000

168

Mortar, lime..........

400

100

50

5

-

-

125

12

1285000

98

,,

Portland cement......

2000

200

300

30

-

-

700

70

600000

109

Ox leather...........

-

-

4200

400

-

-

-

-

240000

-

Portland stone........

3500

350

900

90

-

-

1530

150

1600000

146

Silk fibre..........

-

-

5200

520

-

-

-

-

1300000

-

Skin ox undressed..........

-

-

6300

600

-

-

-

-

-

-

Slate..............

11000

1100

10000

800

-

-

5000

500

12000000

160

Ropes, hempen.......

-

-

8000

800

-

-

-

-

-

-

Whalebone.............

-

-

7700

770

-

-

-

-

820000

81

Yarn, flaxen............

-

-

25000

1500

-

-

-

-

-

-