STONES.

Compression on bed.

Compression on edge.

Tension.

Modulus of Rupture.

Weight per

Cubic ft.

Ultimate c

Safe c/f

Ultimate c1

Safe c1/f

Ultimate t

Safe t/f

Ultimate k

Safe k/f

Bluestone.........

13500

1350

-

-

1400

140

2300

230

160

Granite, average.......

15000

1500

-

-

580

50

1860

180

170

"

Aberdeen (Scotch)........

10700

1000

-

-

-

-

-

-

165

"

Blue, Staten Island, N. Y........

22250

2000

-

-

-

-

1300

130

179

"

Canadlan.........

12000

1200

-

-

-

-

-

-

162

"

Connecticut........

12000

1200

13000

1300

-

-

-

-

166

"

Cornish (English)...........

6300

630

-

-

-

-

-

-

183

"

Keene, N. H...........

14500

1450

-

-

-

-

1500

150

-

"

Kingston (Dublin), Ireland............

10450

1050

-

-

-

-

-

-

171

"

Maine.........

15000

1500

15000

1500

-

-

-

-

168

"

Massachusetts.........

16000

1600

9250

925

-

-

1870

180

105

"

Millstone Point..........

15700

1570

-

-

-

-

1900

190

-

"

Mt. Sorrel..........

12900

1300

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

New Jersey..........

22000

2200

-

-

-

-

-

-

189

"

New York State.......

15000

1500

15000

1500

-

-

-

-

168

"

Peterhead (Scotch)..........

8300

830

-

-

-

-

-

-

166

"

Virginia...........................

14000

1400

-

-

-

-

-

-

164

"

Greenstone. Giants' Causeway, Ireland

18000

1800

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Limestone, average...........

7000

700

6000

600

1000

100

1500

150

146

"

Anglesea, English..............

7600

760

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

Bath, English...............

1450

150

-

-

-

-

370

37

-

"

Caen, French.............

3550

350

-

-

150

15

600

60

119

"

Chalk, French.............

1000

100

-

-

118

10

670

50

145

"

Chalk, average.............

3240

325

-

-

500

50

-

-

153

"

Canton, Mo., drab..........

7200

720

-

-

-

-

-

-

146

"

Marquette, Mich, drab.........

7900

790

7800

780

-

-

1500

150

146

"

Dublin, Irish........................

17000

1740

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

English, Irish..................

8300

830

-

-

-

-

800

80

160

"

English, compact..............

11500

1100

1 750

1000

-

-

-

-

169

"

Glen Falls, N.Y...................

25000

2000

21500

1800

-

-

-

-

172

"

North River, N. Y.........

17000

1500

14150

1400

-

-

-

-

166

"

Purbeck (hard bed), English.........

8000

800

-

-

-

-

-

-

153

STONES.

Compression on bed.

Compression on edge.

Tension.

Modulus of Rupture.

Weight per

Cubic ft.

Ultimate c

Safe c/f

Ultimate c1

Safe c1/f

Ultimate t

Safe t/f

Ultimate k

Safe k/f

Limestone, Portland, English.......

3500

350

-

-

900

90

1530

150

146

,,

Joliet, III, white.............

13000

1300

7050

700

-

-

-

-

159

,,

Marblehead, Ohio, white........

11500

1150

-

-

-

-

1500

150

152

Marble, average..........

8000

800

8000

800

700

70

1200

120

160

,,

Devonshire red (English)........

7300

730

-

-

-

-

-

-

103

,,

Eastchester.........

13000

1300

-

-

1600

160

1000

190

179

,,

Illinois.............

9700

970

9800

980

1000

100

1200

120

159

,,

Italian................

12000

1200

-

-

700

70

2080

200

168

,,

Vermont...............

7600

760

8670

870

675

67

1200

120

166

Rock, average...........

12000

1000

11000

1000

-

-

-

-

165

,,

quartz (American)............

22000

1500

13000

1000

-

-

-

-

165

,,

Holyhead (English)

25000

1500

13700

1000

-

-

-

-

165

,,

hard, New York City...............

11250

1000

12500

1000

-

-

-

-

182

Sandstone, average......................

5000

500

-

-

100

15

1000

100

144

,,

Berlin, Ohio..................

14250

1000

12000

1000

-

-

-

-

-

,,

Bevlvile, N.J. (brown).........

11700

1000

10250

800

-

-

650

50

141

,,

Corsehill (red Scotch)............

7700

700

-

-

-

-

-

-

154

,,

Gatelawbridgo (red Scotch)..........

8500

750

-

-

-

-

-

152

,,

Little Falls, N.Y. (brown)............

9850

980

9150

900

-

-

1730

170

140

,,

Craigleith (Scotch)

6500

550

_

-

450

45

770

77

144

,,

Longmeadow, (Worcester) brown.....

10300

1000

-

-

-

-

-

-

142

,,

Longmeadow, (Kibbe) red..........

12700

1200

-

-

-

-

-

-

149

,,

Middletown, Conn. (brown)..........

6950

600

5550

500

590

60

1000

100

148

,,

Amherst, Ohio (brown-gray)............

6000

600

5450

600

105

10

600

60

135

,,

Bramely Falls, English.............

5900

550

-

-

-

-

-

-

142

,,

Dorchester, Nova Scotia(freestone)..

9200

900

-

-

100

10

800

80

150

,,

,,

(olive)...............

4250

400

6050

600

-

-

-

-

150

,,

Drab Berea(Ohio)........... ...

8750

800

-

-

105

10

700

70

134

,,

Runcorn red, (English)..............

2100

200

-

-

-

-

-

-

129

,,

Yorkshire paving (English)............

5000

500

-

-

-

-

750

75

166

Slate..........

11000

1100

-

-

10000

800

5000

500

160

Whinstone (Scotch)...........

8100

800

-

-

1450

140

-

-

-

Stonework.............

with

level,

dressed

beds

allow

4-10 of

strength

of

stone.

Rubblework............

500

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

150

BRICKS. - CEMENTS, ETC. - SOILS.

Compression on bed.

Compression on edge.

Tension.

Modulus of Rupture.

Weight per

Cubic ft.

Ultimate c

Safe c/f

Ultimato c1

Safe c1/f

Ultimate t

Safe t/f

Ultimate k

Safe k/f

BRICKS.

Bicks, light red......

640

65

-

-

40

4

-

-

-

,,

good common.......

10000

800

-

-

200

20

600

60

100

,,

best hard................

12000

1000

-

-

400

40

750

75

107

,,

Phlladelphia, pressed.......

6000

600

-

-

-

-

650

65

105

,,

browing glazed (English).........

1300

130

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

,,

fire (English.).......

1700

170

-

-

-

-

-

-

133

Brick work, common.........

1000

100

-

-

50

5

-

-

110

,,

good........

1500

150

-

-

100

10

-

-

111

,,

best, in cement mortar........

2000

200

-

-

300

30

-

-

112

Terra-cotta.........

5000

400

-

-

-

-

-

-

110

Terra-cotta work............

2000

200

-

-

-

-

-

-

112

CEMENTS, ETC.

Cement, Rosendale.............

1500

150

-

-

290

20

400

40

56

,,

Portland..........

3000

300

-

-

500

50

900

90

81

,,

lime..........

600

60

-

-

-

-

200

20

59

,,

Plaster-of-Paris...........

600

60

-

-

70

7

-

-

78

Mortar, lime..........

400

100

-

-

50

5

125

12

93

,,

lime and Rosendale........

550

125

-

-

75

8

200

20

100

,,

Rosendale cement.............

700

150

-

-

115

15

300

30

102

,,

Portland cement............

2000

200

-

-

300

30

700

70

109

,,

plastering.................

400

50

-

-

-

-

-

-

86

Concrete, Portland cement..............

1500

200

-

-

427

40

162

16

150

,,

Rosendale cement..........

400

100

-

-

100

10

66

8

140

SOILS.

Clay, horizontal leyers.............

-

40

-

-

-

-

-

-

120

Firm earth..............

-

20

-

-

-

-

-

-

115

Gravel, firm with earth...........

-

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

125

Loam, soft,.....

-

10

-

-

-

-

-

-

110

Sand, solid dry..........

-

7

-

-

-

-

-

-

112

The amounts given in Table IV for compression, tension and shearing are along fibres, except where marked across.

It will also be noticed that the factors-of-safety chosen are very different; the reason being that where figures seemed reliable the factor chosen was low, and became higher in proportion to the unreliability of the figures. The tables, as they are, are extremely unsatisfactory and unreliable, though the writer has spent much time in their construction. Any one, who will devote to the subject even the slightest research, will find that there are hardly any two original experimenters who agree, and in most cases, the experiments are so carelessly made or recorded that they are of but little value.