These are the principal portions of the harness. The seemingly insufficient protection for the arms is explained by the fact that the solid wooden shield completely covered the fighter's left arm,

1 This, in the later Middle Ages, was a favourite form of tourneying lance.

Jousting Harness Of Charles The Fifth (Royal Armoury, Madrid)

Jousting Harness Of Charles The Fifth (Royal Armoury, Madrid) while the right would be defended by the shieldlike disc or arande/a of the lance.

Spanish shields and swords of great antiquity and interest are also in this armoury. The oldest of the shields dates from the twelfth century, and proceeds from the monastery of San Salvador de Ona, Burgos. The material is a wood resembling cedar, although much eaten by moth, and is covered on both sides with parchment bearing traces of primitive painting of a non-heraldic character. Inside the shield, this decoration consisted of a black ground crossed diagonally by a broad red band, and outside, of a red ground covered with rhomboid figures, some in gilt and some in colour. Such figures were a popular pattern at this time and on this class of objects. The general stoutness of this shield shows that it was meant for war. It still retains the strap which slung it from the warrior's neck, as well as fragments of the braces - made of buffalo leather covered with crimson velvet - for the hand.

Another shield, proceeding from the same monastery, dates from the thirteenth century. The material, here again, is wood and parchment; but in this hundred years formal heraldic ornament had superseded fancy or conventional devices.

Accordingly, this shield is painted with a blazon, nowmuch worn, of which, however, enough remains to show that it consisted once upon a time of four black chaperons crowned with gold fleurs-de-lis upon a gold ground - said to have been the arms of Don Rodrigo Gomez, Count of Bureba.

The scut, or polished metal shield, with painted blazonry or other decoration, was limited to Aragon and Cataluna.1

Among the smaller and more modern shields preserved in this collection are two wooden bucklers dating from the sixteenth century. One is in the Spanish-Moorish style and of a convex shape, with iron bordering and umbo, and a lining of yellow brocade. The other, of the Christian Spaniards, is small and lined with painted parchment, and was intended, so the inventory says, "for going about at night."2

There is also a richly gilt and silvered buckler of the seventeenth century, made at Eugui in

1 Historia General del Arte; Armas, by Garcia Llanso; p. 445.

2 "Des que le soir arrive, on ne va point n'y a Madrid ny ailleurs, sans cotte de maille et sans broquet qui est une rondache." - Bertaut de Rouen, Voyage d'Espagne (1659 A.D.), p. 294.

The arms of Spaniards promenading after dark were even fixed by law. The Suma de Leyes of 1628 ordains that after ten o'clock nobody is to carry arms at all unless he also bears a lighted torch

Navarre, and covered with a scene - decadent in design and workmanship - which represents the judgment of Paris. Defensive armour, chiefly of a highly decorative kind, was made all through this century at the capital of Navarre, Pamplona. The Royal Armoury contains a Pamplonese parade harness (Plate lii.), offered as a gift to Philip the Third, as well as six diminutive sets of armour made to his order for the youthful princes Don Felipe, Don Fernando, and Don Carlos.

The adarga was a kind of targe used by the light cavalry, and had its origin in Africa. Those which were stored in the palace of the Nasrite or lantern. No arquebus, on pain of a fine of ten thousand maravedis, may have a barrel less than a yard long. Nobody may carry a sword or rapier the length of whose blade exceeds a yard and a quarter, or wear a dagger unless a sword accompanies it. Sometimes these prohibitions extended even to seasons of the year. In 1530 an Ordinance of Granada proclaims that from the first of March until the last day of November nobody may carry a hatchet, sickle, or dagger, "except the dagger which is called a barazano, of a palm in length, even if the wearer be a shepherd." The penalty for infringement of this law was a fine of ten thousand maravedis; but labourers who worked upon a farm were exempted from the prohibition.

Swinburne wrote from Cataluna, in 1775, that "amongst other restrictions, the use of slouched hats, white shoes, and large brown cloaks is forbidden. Until of late they durst not carry any kind of knife; but in each public house there was one chained to the table for the use of all comers." sultans of Granada are described by Al-Makkari as "solid, without pores, soft to the touch, and famed for their imperviousness." The material was strong leather, such as cowhide, often embroidered with a scutcheon or with arabesques. Two Spanish-made adargas in this armoury-are particularly handsome. One is of Moorish craftsmanship, and dates from the end of the fifteenth century. The other (Plate liii.), apparently the work of a Spanish Christian and dating from a century later, is embroidered in silver thread and coloured silk with arabesque devices and also with four coats of arms, one of which belongs to the noble family of Fernandez de Cordova. The dimensions of this shield are a yard in height by thirty inches in breadth.