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The Arts and Crafts of Older Spain | by Leonard Williams



In preparing these volumes, it has been my aim to give a clear and fairly complete account of the arts and crafts of older Spain. It seems to me that there is room for a work of this design and scope, and that there is no reason why so attractive a subject - or rather, group of subjects - should be perpetually ignored by persons who travel through, or who profess to feel an interest in, the country of the Cid and of Don Quixote.

TitleThe Arts and Crafts of Older Spain
AuthorLeonard Williams
PublisherT. N. Foulis
Year1907
Copyright1907, T. N. Foulis
AmazonArts and Crafts of Older Spain. 3 Volumes.

The Arts and Crafts of Older Spain

By Leonard Williams

Comendador Of The Order Of Alfonso The Twelfth. Corresponding Member Of The Royal Spanish Academy J Of The Royal Spanish Academy Of History; And Of The Royal Spanish Academy Of Fine Arts

Author Of "The Land Of The Dons " "Toledo And Madrid"; "Granada," Etc.

The Arts and Crafts of Older Spain 2Refa Of The Choir (Seville Cathedral)

Refa Of The Choir (Seville Cathedral)

Volume One

T. N. Foulis, 23 Bedford Street, London, W.C.; & 13-15 Frederick Street, Edinburgh MDCCCCVII.

-Preface
In preparing these volumes, it has been my aim to give a clear and fairly complete account of the arts and crafts of older Spain. It seems to me that there is room for a work of this design and scope,...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work
The hyperbolic language of the ancients spoke of Spain as filled throughout, upon her surface and beneath her soil, with precious stones and precious metals. Old writers - Strabo, Pliny, Aristoteles, ...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 2
Emeralds were formerly extracted from a mine at Moron, in the Sierra de Leyta; white sapphires and agates at Cape de Gata,1 at the eastern extremity of the Gulf of Almeria; amethysts at Monte de las G...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 3
We know that Rome imposed her usages on all the peoples whom she subjugated. Consequently, following this universal law, the Spaniards would adopt, together with the lavish luxury of Rome, the Roman o...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 4
Part of this treasure passed in some mysterious way to France, and is now in the Cluny Museum at Paris. The rest is in the Royal Armoury at Madrid. Paris can boast possession of nine of the crowns; Ma...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 5
Of that portion of the treasure of Guarrazar which has remained at Madrid (Plate i.), the most important object is the votive crown of King Swinthila, son of Recared, and described as one of the most...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 6
Offeret Mvnvscvlvm Sco Stefano Theodosivs Abba We do not know who Theodosius was, but Amador, judging from the simple decoration of this crown, believes him to have been a priest of lower rank, and b...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 7
Muza, on returning to the East, is said to have drawn near to Damascus with a train of thirty waggons full of Spanish silver, gold, and precious stones. Tarik ben Ziyed, marching in triumph through th...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 8
The sum of my remarks upon the Visigothic jewel-work is this. Distinguished by a coarse though costly splendour, we find in it a mingled Roman and Byzantine source, although it was upon the whole infe...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 9
A small exhibition was held at Lugo in August 1896. Here were shown sixteen chalices, nearly all of them of merit from the point of view of history or art. Such are the chalice of San Rosendo, proceed...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 10
A typical Moorish casket of this kind (Plate iv.) is now in the cathedral of Gerona. It measures fifteen inches in length by nine across, fastens with a finely ornamented band and clasp of bronze, and...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 11
1 Together with the statuette of Ujue in Navarre, the Virgen de la Vega of Salamanca may be classed as one of the earliest local Virgins of this country. Sometimes these images are of wood alone, s...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 12
All kinds of robberies and pilferings have thus been perpetrated with the once abundant wealth of Santiago.1 The jealous care which keeps the copious archives inaccessible to all the outside world is ...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 13
Striking objects of ecclesiastical orfebreria were produced in Spain throughout the thirteenth and the fourteenth centuries. Among the finest are the triptych-reliquary of Seville cathedral known as t...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 14
San Narciso is patron of the city of Gerona; which explains the presence of his image here. From the treasury of the same cathedral was stolen, during the War of Spanish Independence, a magnificent al...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 15
Similar relations may be found at every moment of the history of mediaeval Spain. Another instance may be quoted from the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella. When these sovereigns visited Barcelona in 14...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 16
A wilderness of building, sinking far And self-withdrawn into a wondrous depth, Far sinking into splendour without end! Fabric it seemed of diamond and of gold, With alabaster domes and silver spires...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 17
We learn from the same source that the gold bracelets were sometimes smooth, and sometimes covered over with devices (cubiertos de estampas por cima). The technical name of these was albordados. The...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 18
A similar instance may be quoted from a document of Cordova, published by Ramirez de Arellano in his relation of a visit to the monastery of San Jeronimo de Valparaiso. In the year 1607 Geronimo de la...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 19
Riano and Baron de la Vega de Hoz extract from Cean Bermudez a copious list of silversmiths who worked in Spain all through the Middle Ages. This long array of isolated names and dates is neither inte...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 20
Still keeping to the sixteenth century, in other parts of Spain we find the silversmiths Baltasar Alvarez and Juan de Benavente, working at Pal-encia; Alonso de Duenas at Salamanca; and Juan de Orna a...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 21
In point of versatility Juan de Arfe was a kind of Spanish Leonardo. His book, De Varia Con - mensuracion, etc., published in 1585, is divided into four parts, and deals, the first part with the pract...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 22
Many pragmatics from the Crown vainly endeavoured to suppress or mitigate the popular extravagance. Such was the royal letter of 1611, which forbade, among the laity, the wearing of gold jewels with ...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 23
Elsewhere the Countess says: Utensils of common metal are not employed here, but only those of silver or of ware. I hear that a little while ago, upon the death of the Duke of Albur-querque, six week...
-Gold, Silver, And Jewel Work. Part 24
The modern gold and silver work of Spain is thus exempted from a lengthy notice, seeing that its typical and national characteristics have succumbed, or very nearly so. I may, however, mention the gia...
-Iron-Work
The ancient iron mines of Spain were no less celebrated than her mines of silver and of gold. Nevertheless, the history of Spanish iron-work begins comparatively late. Excepting certain swords and oth...
-Iron-Work. Part 2
Tradition declares that both this key and its companion were laid at the feet of Ferdinand the Third by Axataf, governor of Seville, when the city capitulated to the Christian prince on November 23rd,...
-Iron-Work. Part 3
If we except the vast dimensions of the common keys of houses, this branch of Spanish craftsmanship has now no quality to point it from the rest of Europe, having become, in Riano's words, simply pra...
-Iron-Work. Part 4
The Madrid Museum contains a sixteenth-century cross of repousse iron, in the Greek form, and which is certainly of Spanish make. According to Villa-amil, it formerly had a gilded border and was paint...
-Iron-Work. Part 5
Although the craftsman's name has rarely been recorded, we know that excellent rejeria was made at Barcelona in the fifteenth century. Also dating from the fifteenth century, and therefore prior to th...
-Iron-Work. Part 6
The author of this admirable screen was Francisco de Villalpando, whose plans and estimate were approved by Cardinal Tavera in 1540. The reja consists of two tiers resting on different kinds of marbl...
-Iron-Work. Part 7
Such is the reja thought, both then and now, to be the finest ever made. The style is pure Renaissance. Two tiers of equal height consist of four-and-twenty ornamented rails or balusters disposed, abo...
-Iron-Work. Part 8
Having regard to all these grievances, the councillors decreed that none of whatsoever order or condition shall dare henceforth to place, or cause to be placed, about the lower floors or entrance of ...
-Bronzes
The earliest objects of bronze discovered in this country are comparatively few. As in other parts of Europe, they consist mostly of weapons, such as spear-heads and hatchets (which will be noticed un...
-Bronzes. Part 2
More than the shape of these old objects seems to have passed to modern Spain - if any phase at all of Spanish life can ever justly be accounted modern. The ancients had an almost superstitious revere...
-Bronzes. Part 3
Mussulman historians have described, in terms of cloying praise, the red gold animals contrived with subtle skill and spread with precious stones which Abderrahman placed at Cordova upon the fountai...
-Bronzes. Part 4
It is probable, therefore, that the lamp of the third Mohammed of Granada is now composed of two lamps, and that the primitive arrangement of its parts was altered by the ignorant. Eight chains would ...
-Bronzes. Part 5
In the latter half of the sixteenth century, Bartolome Morel, a Sevillano, produced some notable work in bronze.2 Three objects by his hand - namely, the choir lectern and the tene-brarium of Seville ...
-Bronzes. Part 6
The Spanish Moors were also well acquainted with the use of weathercocks. During the reign, in the eleventh century, of the Zirite kingling of Granada, Badis ben Habbus, a weathercock of strange desig...
-Arms
Lovers of the old-time crafts approach a fertile field in Spanish arms; for truly with this warworn land the sword and spear, obstinately-substituted for the plough, seem to have grown well-nigh into ...
-Arms. Part 2
Various of the native peoples of Iberia were distinguished by a special instrument or mode of fighting. Strabo says that the Iberians as a general rule employed two lances and a sword. Those of Lusita...
-Arms. Part 3
The fuero of Caceres tells us, furthermore, what was the regular equipment of the Spanish foot and mounted soldier of that period. Each horseman shall go forth to battle with a shield, a lance, a swo...
-Arms. Part 4
This brings us to the celebrated helmet or cimera (Plate xxxix.), now in the Royal Armoury of Madrid, believed till recently to have belonged to Jayme the First, conqueror of Palma and Valencia, and t...
-Arms. Part 5
It is also evident from Royal Letters of this time, that the kings of Spain depended very largely for the flower of their forces on the private fortune or resources of the Spanish noblemen or even com...
-Arms. Part 6
The crossbow was an arm of great importance from about the eleventh century until the seventeenth, and Spain, throughout the latter of these centuries, was celebrated for their manufacture. Roquetas, ...
-Arms. Part 7
The primitive Spanish-Moorish sword was an arm of moderate breadth used both for cutting and for thrusting. As time went on, this people gradually adopted swords of Spanish make or pattern, such as th...
-Arms. Part 8
But the most important, interesting, and beautiful specimens of Spanish-Moorish arms preserved to-day are those which were captured from Boabdil at the battle of Lucena (1482), when the monarch was ma...
-Arms. Part 9
The sheath of this little arm is made of crimson velvet richly embroidered with gold thread, and hanging from it is a large tassel of gold cord and crimson silk. The chape and mouth are silver-gilt, p...
-Arms. Part 10
These are the principal portions of the harness. The seemingly insufficient protection for the arms is explained by the fact that the solid wooden shield completely covered the fighter's left arm, 1 ...
-Arms. Part 11
There also are preserved in this collection a shield (late sixteenth century) adorned by Mexican Indians with a most elaborate mosaic of feather-work, and a number of Spanish adargas of the same per...
-Arms. Part 12
Throughout these times the armourer's and the gilder's crafts are found in closest union; just as the armourer's craft would often alternate with that of the goldsmith or the silversmith. At Seville, ...
-Arms. Part 13
Of even greater interest than the foregoing weapon is the great two-handed and two-edged estoque or ceremonial sword of Ferdinand and Isabella, which measures forty-two inches in length. The fittings ...
-Arms. Part 14
The sword of the great captain, Gonzalo de Cordova (1453-1515}, is not of Spanish make (Plate lvii., No. 3). It has a straight blade with bevelled edges. The pommel and quillons are decorated with R...
-Arms. Part 15
The following passage from Bowles' Natural History of Spain, written in 1752, is also of especial interest here: - At a league's distance from Mondragon is a mine of varnished, or, as miners term it,...
-Firearms
Cannon of a primitive kind were used in Spain comparatively early. A large variety of names was given to these pieces, such as cerbatanas, ribadoquines, culebrinas, falconetes, pasavolantes, lombardas...
-Saddlery And Coaches
Probably no relic of the former of these crafts in Spain is older or more curious than the iron bit (Plate lvii., No. 8), inlaid with silver dragons' heads and crosses, and attributed, from cruciform ...
-Saddlery And Coaches. Part 2
The stirrups included two Moorish stirrups of gilded tin, for a woman's use;1 some large Moorish stirrups, gilt, with two silver plates upon their faces, enamelled gold, green, and blue, and eight ...
-Saddlery And Coaches. Part 3
Some curious facts relating to these vehicles in older Spain are instanced by Janer. In the seventeenth century a Spanish provincial town would normally contain a couple of hundred coaches. Among such...









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