The Foot

As the little finger side is the heel side of the hand, so the outside of the foot is the heel side. It is flat upon the ground, continuous with the heel; it is lower than the inside - even the outer ankle bone is lower - and it is shorter.

The inside, as though raised by the greater power of the great toe and the tendons of all the toes, is higher. To the front of the ankle is the knob that corresponds with the base of the thumb. Opposite it, on the outside, is a similar knob corresponding with the base of the little finger.

In the foot this symmetry adapted to the function of weight - bearing, has developed into a wonderful series of arches. The five arches of the foot converge on the heel; the toes being flying buttresses to them. The balls of the foot form a transverse arch. The inner arches of the foot are successively higher, forming half of a transverse arch whose completion is in the opposite foot. Opening gradually toward the ankle, this arching movement finally culminates in the two columns of the leg and the arch between; wherefore the leg is placed somewhat to the inside of the central line of the foot.

Movements

In all positions, the foot tends to keep itself flat with the ground; the arches of the foot changing accordingly. In action, the foot comes almost into straight line with the leg, but when settling upon the ground, the outer or heel side strikes first and the whole foot settles toward the inside.

Movements ConstructiveAnatomy 82The Foot. The Foot, outer view. Interlocking of the Ankle with the Foot.

The Foot. The Foot, outer view. Interlocking of the Ankle with the Foot.

The Foot. The Foot, inner view.

The Foot. The Foot, inner view.

Toes. Their Pads and Wedging.

Toes. Their Pads and Wedging.

Origin And Common Meaning Of Anatomical Words

Flexor

Bender

Extensor

Extender

Abductor

Drawing away ( from median line)

Adductor

Drawing toward (median line)

Supinator

Turning face up

Pronator

Turning face down

Anterior

In front

Posterior

Behind

1 .ongus

Long

Brevis

Brief, or short

External

Outside of

Internal

On inner side

Rectus

Straight

Vastus

Vast, or large

Minimus

Smallest

Semi

Half

Tertius

Third

Infra

Below

Bones

Frontal

In front

Temporal

"Time"

Parietal

From paries, wall

Occipital

From ob. over against, and caput, head; so back of head

Nasal

Nose

Malar

From mala, cheek

Maxillary

Jaw

Superior

Above, upper

Inferior

Below, lower

Mastoid

Nipple-shaped

Sternum

Breast bone

Clavicle

Key, collar bone

Scapula

Spade; shoulder blade

Humerus

Bone of upper arm

Ulna

Cubit

Radius

Spoke (of wheel)

Carpal

From carpus, wrist

Trapezium

Table

Trapezoid

Like a table - two sides parallel, two not

Scaphoid

Boat-shaped

Semi-lunar

Half-moon

Cuneiform

Wedge-shaped

Pisiform

Pea-shaped

Os magnum

Great bone

Metacarpals

Beyond the wrist

Phalanges

Ranks of soldiers

Digit

Finger

Os innominatum

Bone without a name

Sacrum

Sacred (used in oracles)

Coccyx

Cuckoo (beak of)

Femur

Thigh

Patella

Little pan

Tibia

Shin

Fibula

Flute

Calcaneum

From calx, heel

Tarsal

Instep

Metatarsal

Beyond the instep

Phalanges

Ranks of soldiers

Muscles

Temporal

Pertaining to temporal hone

Masseter

Chewer, masticator

Sterno-cleido-mastoid

Attaching to sternum, clavicle and mastoid bones

Thyroid

Shield (and cidos, like); so shield-like. (So all words ending in -oid.)

Thyroid cartilage

Adam's apple

Deltoid

Like Creek letter delta, triangular (equilateral )

Pectoralis

Pertaining to breast

Major

Greater

Minor

Lesser

Rectus abdominis

Straight muscle of abdomen

Oblique

Slanting

Serratus

Saw-toothed

Teres

Round

Biceps

Two-headed

Brachialis

Pertaining to arm

Anticus

( Adjective ) in front

Triceps

Three-headed

Anconeus

Donkey's foot

Coraco-brachialis

from coracoid (beak-like) process of scapula to brachium, or arm

Gluteus

Buttocks

Maximus

Greatest

Medius

Middle-sized

Minimus

Smallest

Tensor

Tightener, or holder

Fascia

Band

Lata

Broad

Rectus femoris

Straight muscle of the femur

Vastus externus

Great muscle outside

Vastus internus

Great muscle inside

Abductor

Drawing away (from median line)

Gracilis

Slender, graceful

Semi-tendinosus

Half tendinous

Semi-membranosus

; Half membranous (broad, flat tendon)

Plantaris

Of the sole of the foot (compare palmaris of the hand )

Gastrocnemius

Frog's belly

Soleus

Sole fish, or flounder

Achilles' tendon

The tendon by which Achilles' mother held in dipping him into the River Styx to make him invulnerable

Peroneus

Pin - another name for fibula

Tibialis Anticus

In front of tibia

Pollicis

From pollex, thumb or big toe

Thenar

Palm

Hypo-tlienar

Under (less than) the thenar

Palmaris

Of the palm

Trapezius

Table-shaped

Latissimus dorsi

Broadest muscle of back

Infra-spinatus

Below the spine ( of scapula )

Supra-spinatus

Above the spine (of scapula)

Teres major

Larger round muscle

Teres minor

Smaller round muscle

Rhomboideus

Rhomb shaped - quadrilateral but not right-angled

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