In the case of a giant, for instance, it is not sufficient to add half a module in equal proportions to the nine and a half modules representing the stature of an ordinary man in order to produce the giant; for actual observation and measurement show that the size of the head and trunk of giants differs little from those of men of ordinary stature, and that the excess of height of the former is chiefly due to an unusual development of the lower extremities relatively to the rest of the body. Professor Carus' canon, moreover, renders no assistance to the study of the pro-gressive development of the body, as we know that the different parts of the body develop at various rates. Thus, in the young child the middle point is near the navel, but in the adult man it is below the pubis.'

Liharzik of Vienna proceeded by the method of averages, his figures being drawn from measurements of three hundred persons, and his researches extending over seven years. He makes the following statements: The distance above the pubis is to that below as 81 is to 94. The length of the forearm and the hand taken together is to that of the arm as 91 is to 63. The height of the head and neck taken together is to that of the body as 33 is to 175. The length of the foot is equal to that of the forearm. The length of the hand is equal to that of the clavicle, and both are equal to six-sevenths of the forearm or to two-thirds of the humerus. The distance from the centre of the trunk to the extremity of the middle finger is equal to one half the stature.

Amongst the French the older writers on the subject of proportion may be briefly dismissed, though those of a later period will require a longer consideration. Cousin (1502-1590) is the author of a system in which the limbs are enclosed in squares, and the head and neck and the torso in quadrilaterals. Certain of his figures will be referred to hereafter. Poussin (1594-1665) dealt particularly with Leonardo da Vinci's ideas. Testelin (1616) was the author of a work entitled 'Conferences de l'Academie avec les Sentiments des plus habiles Peintures.' His proportions are supposed by Schadow to have been copied from the 'Acus Nautica' of Paggi. Pader (1649), in his 'Traite de la Proportion Naturelle et Artificielle des Choses,' gave exact copies of Durer's figures, although he only mentioned that artist in his preface. Bardon of Marseilles gave similar tables to those of Testelin, and Horace Vernet, with others, also wrote on the subject of proportion. Gerdy, in his 'Anatomie des Formes Exte-rieures du Corps Humain,' published in Paris in 1829, set himself the task of finding simple proportions for the human body. He divided the head into four equal parts, and made it the eighth part of the body.

The trunk contained three heads, the first from the chin to the nipple, the second from the nipple to the umbilicus, and the third from the umbilicus to the pubis. The lower extremity contained four heads, two from the pubis to the spine of the tibia below the knee, and two more from this point to the ground. The upper extremity contained three and a quarter heads, one from the shoulder to the front of the elbow, a second from thence to the wrist, and the third from this point to the extremity of the middle finger.

Of this system Quetelet says: 'The relations expressed by the table are extremely simple; but in order to obtain this simplicity it has been necessary to make great sacrifices of truth.' According to Topinard, the canon most in use in French studios is that of Cousin, somewhat modified by Blanc In this canon the whole body is divided into thirty parts, four of which, equivalent to the seventh and a half part of the body, are allotted to the head, nine to the trunk from the supra-sternal notch to the genitalia, two to the neck, and the remaining fifteen to the lower extremity, of which fifteen, six are allotted to the thigh from the genitalia to above the knee. Topinard gives the following table as the canon of the studios, the total stature equalling 100.

HEAD

Vertex to roots of hair -

1

nose,

3.3

13.2

Roots of the hair to root of the nose

1

"

3.3

Root of the nose to its base

1

"

3.3

[Base of the nose to the chin

1

"

3.3

NECk

Chin to supra-sternal notch

½

head

2

"

66

6.6

TRUNK

Supra-sternal notch to edge of pectoral

1

face

3

"

9.9

29.7

Pectoral to umbilicus -

1

"

"

9.9

Umbilicus to root of penis -

1

"

8

"

9.9

INFERIOR EXTREMITY

Penis to above the knee

head

6

"

19.9

53.0

Knee.........................

½

"

2

"

6.6

Below the knee to the instep

"

6

"

19.9

Instep to the ground -

½

"

2

"

6.6

102.5

SUPERIOR

EXTREMITY

(COUSIN).

Shoulder to upper part of wrist ....

"

8

"

25.0

37.5

Wrist.....

¼

"

1

"

3.1

Hand.....

1

face

3

"

9.3

Shoulder to elbow

head

5

"

15.6

40.6

Elbow to upper part of wrist ....

1

"

4

"

12.5

Hand and wrist -

1

"

4

"

12.5

Various -

Span of arms is equal to the stature.

Maximum breadth of the shoulders is equal to ¼ the stature (Blanc).

Maximum breadth of the hips is equal to V the stature (Blanc).

Clavicle to pubis or trunk

are equal (Cordier).

Ilium to patella or thigh

Patella to ground or leg

In examining this table it should be. remembered that, in Blanc's canon, the nose is the 30th part of the body, and is therefore to the stature as 3.33 is to 100. In that of Cousin, the nose is the 32nd part, or 3.124. The head, in that of Gerdy, is 12.5 parts of the 100 comprised in the stature. I shall have occasion further to quote from the great French anthropologist Topinard when dealing with the differences of stature in different races, and with other points at a later period; but this will, perhaps, be the best place to quote his remarks upon the standard European canon, which, on account of their importance, I shall give in extenso. He points out, in the first place, that in order to arrive at really accurate results it would be necessary to obtain thoroughly accurate measurements of at least one hundred absolutely typical Europeans, measurements of which, at the time of writing his book, he was not possessed. 'However,' he says, 'as it is urgent that we should possess a standard of comparison to which a traveller can refer his measurements, so that he may be understood when he says that in a certain population the upper or lower extremities are long or short, and since, naturally, the European nations are those on which such a canon should be based, I have set aside my scruples and devised a canon relating to the adult male of our countries of about 1.65 m. in stature.