books



previous page: Sketching And Rendering In Pencil | by Arthur L. Guptill
  
page up: Art and Photography Books
  
next page: Constructive Anatomy | by George B. Bridgman

The Elements Of Drawing & The Elements Of Perspective | By J. M. Dent & Sons



At that exhibition, the practice and the materials, the familiar David-Roberts grey paper, the Harding pencil effects, the washes and colours, cold or glowing, that marked Ruskin the artist and master of drawing, were so arranged as to recall him almost in the very act.

TitleThe Elements Of Drawing & The Elements Of Perspective
AuthorJ. M. Dent & Sons
PublisherJ. M. Dent & Sons
Year1907
Copyright1907, J. M. Dent & Sons
AmazonThe elements of drawing & the elements of perspective

The Publishers Of Everyman's Library

The Elements Of Drawing And Elements Of Prespective 1The Elements Of Drawing And Elements Of Prespective 2
-Introduction
The exhibition of Ruskin's drawings in New Bond Street, this spring of 1907, has given us what must be our last opportunity of seeing his original work in any complete form. The collection there shown...
-Introduction. Continued
Is this a hard saying? It seems paradoxical, but it is by his recognition of the illusions and the veracities and the innocences of the eye, as it ministers to our faculty and perceptions in art, that...
-Bibliography
It is not necessary to be a professional draughtsman, or a water painter, to gain by this characteristic lesson in seeing and drawing water. Ruskin was a seer, in every cast of the word: and I do not ...
-Preface
[TO ORIGINAL EDITION OF 1857] - It may perhaps be thought, that in prefacing a manual of drawing, I ought to expatiate on the reasons why drawing should be learned; but those reasons appear to me so m...
-Preface. Part 2
Now, I believe that (irrespective of differences in individual temper and character) the excellence of an artist, as such, depends wholly on refinement of perception, and that it is this, mainly, whic...
-Preface. Part 3
In these written instructions, therefore, it has always been with regret that I have seen myself forced to advise anything like monotonous or formal discipline. But, to the unassisted student, such fo...
-The Elements Of Drawing. Letter I. On First Practice
My dear Reader, - Whether this book is to be of use to you or not, depends wholly on your reason tor wishing to learn to draw. If you desire only to possess a graceful accomplishment, to be able to co...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 2
Some of these patches of colour have an appearance of lines or texture within them, as a piece of cloth or silk has of threads, or an animal's skin shows texture of hairs: but whether this be the case...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 3
Fig. 1. Each ought to be laid on as swiftly as the dash of the pen of a good writer; but if you try to reach this great speed at first, you will go over the edge of the square, which is a fault i...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 4
As soon as you can copy every curve slowly and accurately, you have made satisfactory progress; but you will find the difficulty is in the slowness. It is easy to draw what appears to be a good line w...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 5
By looking at any common woodcuts, in the cheap publications of the day, you may see how gradation is given to the sky by leaving the lines farther and farther apart; but you must make your lines as f...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 6
Fig. 3. If you rub out any of the pencil inside the outline of the letter, retouch it, closing it up to the inked line. The straight lines of the outline are all to be ruled1, but the curved Ar...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 7
You cannot do too many studies of this kind: every one will give you some new notion about trees: but when you are tired of tree boughs, take any forms whatever which are drawn in flat colour, one upo...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 8
As soon as you tire of squares draw circles (with compasses); and then draw straight lines irregularly across circles, and fill up the spaces so produced between the straight line and the circumferenc...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 9
1 It is more difficult, at first, to get, in colour, a narrow gradation than an extended one; but the ultimate difficulty is, as with the pen, to make the gradation go far. 2 Of course, all the colum...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 10
Now, remember always what was stated in the outset, that everything you can see in Nature is seen only so far as it is lighter or darker than the things about it, or of a different colour from them. I...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 11
You will probably find, also, that some parts of the stone, or of the paper it lies on, look luminous through the opening; so that the little circle then tells as a light spot instead of a dark spot. ...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 12
Objects are seen therefore, in general, partly by direct light, and partly by light reflected from the objects around them, or from the atmosphere and nearly neutral in ordinary circumstances, but yet...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 13
When you have once got the feeling of the way in which gradation expresses roundness and projection, you may try your strength on anything natural or artificial that happens to take your fancy, provid...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 14
And now, as soon as you can conscientiously assure me that with the point of the pen or pencil you can lay on any form and shade you like, I give you leave to use the brush with one colour, - sepia, o...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 15
I have hitherto limited you to colour mixed with two or three teaspoonfuls of water; but, in finishing your light and shade from the stone, you may, as you efface the edge of the palest coat towards t...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 16
At Marlborough House, among the four principal examples of Turner's later water-colour drawing, perhaps the most neglected is that of fishing-boats and fish at sunset. It is one of his most wonderful ...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 17
You must now therefore have recourse to some confused mode of execution, capable of expressing the confusion of Nature. And, first, you must understand what the character of that confusion is. If you ...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 18
All this difficulty, however, attaches to the rendering merely the dark form of the sprays as they come against the sky. Within those sprays, and in the heart of the tree, there is a complexity of a m...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 19
c m. Loch Coriskin. a l. Caerlaverock. From the Rivers of France. a q. Chateau of Amboise,with large bridge on right. l p r. Rouen, looking down the river, poplars on right. alp. Rouen. with cathed...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 20
If you cannot get either a Rembrandt or a Durer, you may still learn much by carefully studying any of George Cruikshank's etchings, or Leech's woodcuts in Punch, on the free side; with Alfred Rethel'...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 21
Again, observe respecting the use of outline: All merely outlined drawings are bad, for the simple reason, that an artist of any power can always do more, and tell more, by quitting his outlines occas...
-On First Practice of The Elements Of Drawing. Part 22
Fig. 14. If you have not time to draw thus carefully, do not draw at all - you are merely wasting your work and spoiling your taste. When you have had four or five years' practice you may be able t...
-Letter II. Sketching From Nature
My dear Reader, - The work we have already gone through together has, I hope, enabled you to draw with fair success, either rounded and simple masses, like stones, or complicated arrangements of form,...
-Sketching From Nature. Part 2
Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Extremity, so as to form a great outer curve, whose character and proportion are peculiar for each species; that is to say, the general type or idea of a tree is not as a, Fig....
-Sketching From Nature. Part 3
Now, I want you in your first sketches from nature to aim exclusively at understanding and representing these vital facts of form; using the pen - not now the steel, but the quill - firmly and steadil...
-Sketching From Nature. Part 4
1 You will find more notice of this point in the account of Harding's tree-drawing, a little farther on. 2 The impressions vary so much in colour that no brown can be specified.You get the gradations...
-Sketching From Nature. Part 5
Take a small and simple photograph; allow yourself half an hour to express its subjects with the pen only, using some permanent liquid colour instead of ink, outlining its buildings or trees firmly, a...
-Sketching From Nature. Part 6
Fig. 21. Fourthly. You will find it of great use, whatever kind of landscape scenery you are passing through, to get into the habit of making memoranda of the shapes of shadows. You will find that ...
-Sketching From Nature. Part 7
3. Avoid all very neat things. They are exceedingly difficult to draw, and very ugly when drawn. Choose rough, worn, and clumsy-looking things as much as possible; for instance, you cannot have a mor...
-Sketching From Nature. Part 8
And, first, of vegetation. You may think, perhaps, we have said enough about trees already; yet if you have done as you were bid, and tried to draw them frequently enough, and carefully enough, you wi...
-Sketching From Nature. Part 9
Fig. 25. Now, it is in the perfect acknowledgment and expression of these three laws that all good drawing of landscape consists. There is, first, the organic unity; the law, whether of radiation, ...
-Sketching From Nature. Part 10
The pursuit of this subject belongs properly, however, to the investigation of the higher branches of composition, matters which it would be quite useless to treat of in this book; and I only allude t...
-Sketching From Nature. Part 11
Fig. 27. One point more remains to be noted about trees, and I have done. In the minds of our ordinary water-colour artists a distant tree seems only to be conceived as a flat green blot, grouping ...
-Sketching From Nature. Part 12
If, after a little study from Nature, you get puzzled by the great differences between the aspect of the reflected image and that of the object casting it; and if you wish to know the law of reflectio...
-Sketching From Nature. Part 13
2 Respecting Architectural Drawing, see the notice of the works of Prout in the Appendix. Sketching from Nature 109 to admit of my saying it here. You will find the principal laws of its structure ex...
-Letter III. On Colour And Composition
My dear Reader, - If you have been obedient, and have hitherto done all that I have told you, I trust it has not been without much subdued remonstrance, and some serious vexation. For I should be sorr...
-On Colour And Composition. Part 2
And, first, of materials. Use hard cake colours, not moist colours : grind a sufficient quantity of each on your palette every morning, keeping a separate plate, large and deep, for colours to be used...
-On Colour And Composition. Part 3
Method of colour which admits of alteration or repentance; you must be right at once, or never; and you might as well hope to catch a rifle bullet in your hand, and put it straight, when it was going ...
-On Colour And Composition. Part 4
Brown madder. Smalt. Gamboge. Cadmium yellow. Burnt sienna. Extract of vermilion. Burnt umber. Antwerp blue. Emerald green. Yellow ochre. Light red. Carmine. Vandyke brown. Prussian blue. Hooker's...
-On Colour And Composition. Part 5
Fine work you would make of this, wouldn't you, if you had not learned to draw first, and could not now draw a good outline for the stem, much less terminate a colour mass in the outline you wanted? ...
-On Colour And Composition. Part 6
4. But observe, it is not enough in general that colour should be gradated by being made merely paler or darker at one place than another. Generally colour changes as it diminishes, and is not merely ...
-On Colour And Composition. Part 7
If, however, the colour beneath is wholly opposed to the one you have to lay on, as, suppose, if green is to be laid over scarlet, you must either remove the required parts of the under colour daintil...
-On Colour And Composition. Part 8
Next, respecting general tone. I said, just now, that, for the sake of students, my tax should not be laid on black or on white pigments; but if you mean to be a colourist, you must lay a tax on them ...
-On Colour And Composition. Part 9
1 The worst general character that colour can possibly have is a prevalent tendency to a dirty yellowish green, like that of a decaying heap of vegetables; this colour is accurately indicative of decl...
-On Colour And Composition. Part 10
There is, however, I think, one law about distance which has some claims to be considered a constant one: namely, that dullness and heaviness of colour are more or less indicative of nearness. All dis...
-On Colour And Composition. Part 11
Similarly, in a good poem, each word and thought enhances the value of those which precede and follow it; and every syllable has a loveliness which depends not so much on its abstract sound as on its ...
-1. The Law Of Principality
The great object of composition being always to secure unity; that is, to make out of many things one whole; the first mode in which this can be effected is, by determining that one feature shall be m...
-2. The Law Of Repetition
Another important means of expressing unity is to mark some kind of sympathy among the different objects, and perhaps the pleasantest, because most surprising, kind of sympathy, is when one group imit...
-3. The Law Of Continuity
Another important and pleasurable way of expressing unity is by giving some orderly succession to a number of objects more or less similar. And this succession is most interesting when it is connected...
-The Law Of Continuity. Continued
Now this kind of bridge, sympathising, as it does, with the spirit of the river, and marking the nature of the thing it has to deal with and conquer, is the ideal of a bridge; and all endeavours to do...
-4. The Law Of Curvature
There is, however, another point to be noticed in this bridge of Turner's. Not only does it slope away unequally at its sides, but it slopes in a gradual though very subtle curve. And if you substitut...
-5. The Law Of Radiation
We have hitherto been concerned only with the binding of our various objects into beautiful lines or processions. The next point we have to consider is, how we may unite these lines or processions the...
-The Law Of Radiation. Part 2
1 The reader, I hope, observes always that every line in these figures is itself one of varying curvature, and cannot be drawn by compasses. 2 I hope the reader understands that these woodcuts are me...
-The Law Of Radiation. Part 3
And now, if we bring together in one view the principles we have ascertained in trees, we shall find they may be summed under four great laws; and that all perfect1 vegetable form is appointed to expr...
-The Law Of Radiation. Part 4
The next curve is begun and drawn carefully for half an inch of its course by the rudder; it is then taken up by the basket and the heads of the figures, and leads accurately to the tower angle. The g...
-6. The Law Of Contrast
Of course the character of everything is best manifested by Contrast. Rest can only be enjoyed after labour; sound, to be heard clearly, must rise out of silence; light is exhibited by darkness, darkn...
-The Law Of Contrast. Continued
If you look back to Fig. 48. you will see, in the arrangement of the battlements, a simple instance of the use of such variation. The whole top of the tower, though actually three sides of a square, s...
-7. The Law Of Interchange
Closely connected with the law of contrast is a law which enforces the unity of opposite things, by giving to each a portion of the character of the other. If, for instance, you divide a shield into t...
-8. The Law Of Consistency
It is to be remembered, in the next place, that while contrast exhibits the characters of things, it very often neutralises or paralyses their power. A number of white things may be shown to be clearl...
-9. The Law Of Harmony
This last law is not, strictly speaking, so much one of composition as of truth, but it must guide composition, and is properly, therefore, to be stated in this place. Good drawing is, as we have see...
-The Law Of Harmony. Part 2
You can only, however, feel your way fully to the right of the thing by working from Nature. The best subject on which to begin a piece of study of this kind is a good thick tree trunk, seen against ...
-The Law Of Harmony. Part 3
1 In all the best arrangements of colour, the delight occasioned by their mode of succession is entirely inexplicable, nor can it be reasoned about; we like it just as we like an air in music, but can...
-The Law Of Harmony. Part 4
Puseyism was unknown in the days when this drawing was made; but the kindly and helpful influences of what may be called ecclesiastical sentiment, which, in a morbidly exaggerated condition, forms on...
-Appendix
Things To Be Studied The worst danger by far, to which a solitary student is exposed, is that of liking things that he should not. It is not so much his difficulties, as his tastes, which he must set...
-Appendix. Part 2
Secondly, of published, or otherwise multiplied, art, such as you may be able to get yourself, or to see at private houses or in shops, the works of the following masters are the most desirable, after...
-Appendix. Part 3
6. Blake The Book of Job, engraved by himself, is of the highest rank in certain characters of imagination and expression; in the mode of obtaining certain effects of light it will also be a very use...
-Appendix. Part 4
Finally, your judgment will be, of course, much affected by your taste in literature. Indeed, I know many persons who have the purest taste in literature, and yet false taste in art, and it is a pheno...
-Appendix. Part 5
THE ELEMENTS OF PERSPECTIVE ARRANGED FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS AND INTENDED TO BE READ IN CONNEXION WITH THE FIRST THREE BOOKS OF EUCLID PREFACE FOR some time back I have felt the want, among Students of...
-Appendix. Part 6
Supposing that, instead of a window, an unbroken plate of crystal extended itself to the right and left of you, and high in front, and that you had a brush as long as you wanted (a mile long, suppose)...
-Placing Of The Sight-Point, Sight-Line, Station-Point, And Station-Line
Fig. I. I. The Sight-point. - Let a b c d, Fig. I., be your sheet of paper, the larger the better, though perhaps we may cut out of it at last only a small piece for our picture, such as the dotted...
-Placing Of The Sight-Point, Sight-Line, Station-Point, And Station-Line. Continued
1 I say height instead of magnitude, for a reason stated in Appendix I., to which you will soon be referred. Read on here at present. P' Q': P Q:: S T:D T P dash Q dash is to p q as S T to d t In w...
-Problem I. To Fix The Position Of A Given Point 1
Let p, Fig. 4., be the given point. Let its direct distance be d t; its lateral distance to the left, d c; and vertical distance beneath the eye of the observer, c P. Fig. 4. [Let g h be the Sigh...
-Problem II. To Draw A Right Line Between Two Given Points
Let a b, Fig. 6., be the given right line, joining the given points a and B. Fig. 6. Let the direct, lateral, and vertical distances of the point A be t d, d c, and c A. Let the direct, lateral, ...
-Problem III. To Find The Vanishing-Point Of A Given Horizontal Line
Fig. 9. Let A b, Fig. 9., be the given line. From T, the station-point, draw t v parallel to A B, cutting the sight-line in v. v is the Vanishing-point required.1 1 The student will observe, in p...
-Problem V. To Draw A Horizontal Line, Given In Position And Magnitude, By Means Of Its Sight-Magnitude And Dividing-Points
Let a b (Fig. 16.) be the given line. Find the position of the point A in a. Fig. 16. Find the vanishing-point v, and most convenient dividing-point M, of the line A B. Join a v. Through a draw ...
-Problem VII. To Draw Any Rectilinear Quadrilateral Figure, Given In Position And Magnitude, In A Horizontal Plane
Let a b c d (Fig. 19.) be the given figure. Join any two of its opposite angles by the line B c. Draw first the triangle a b c. (Problem VI.) And then, from the base B c, the two lines bd, c d, to ...
-Problem IX. To Draw A Square Pillar, Given In Position And Magnitude, Its Base And Top Being In Horizontal Planes
Let a h, Fig. 23., be the square pillar. Then, as it is given in position and magnitude, the position and magnitude of the square it stands upon must be given (that is, the line A B or A c in positio...
-Problem X. To Draw A Pyramid, Given In Position And Magnitude, On A Square Base In A Horizontal Plane
Let a b, Fig. 25., be the four-sided pyramid.As it is given in position and magnitude, the square base Fig. 25. on which it stands must be given in position and magnitude, and its vertical height,...
-To Draw A Pyramid, Given In Position And Magnitude, On A Square Base In A Horizontal Plane. Continued
If it happens that the vanishing-points of the diagonals are awkwardly placed for use, bisect the nearest base line of the pyramid in B, as in Fig. 59. Erect the vertical D B and join G B and D G (G ...
-Problem XI. To Draw Any Curve In A Horizontal Or Vertical Plane
Let a b, Fig-. 28., be the curve. Enclose it in a rectangle, c d e f. Fix the position of the point c or d, and draw the rectangle. (Prob. VIII. Cor. I.)1 Fig. 28. Let c D E F, Fig. 29., be the re...
-Problem XII. To Divide A Circle Drawn In Perspective Into Any Given Number Of Equal Parts
Let a b, Fig. 32., be the circle drawn in perspective. It is required to divide it into a given number of equal parts; in this case, 20. Let K a l be the semicircle used in the construction. Divide t...
-Problem XIV. To Draw A Truncated Circular Cone, Given In Position And Magnitude, The Truncations Being In Horizontal Planes, And The Axis Of The Cone Vertical
Let a b c d, Fig. 37., be the portion of the cone required As it is given in magnitude, its diameters must be given at the base and summit, A B and c d; and its vertical height, c e.1 Fig. 37. An...
-To Draw A Truncated Circular Cone, Given In Position And Magnitude, The Truncations Being In Horizontal Planes, And The Axis Of The Cone Vertical. Continued
Fig. 67. II. The preceding problem is simple, because the lines of the profile of the object (a b and c d, Fig. 66.) are straight. But if these lines of profile are curved, the problem becomes much...
-Problem XV. To Draw An Inclined Line, Given In Position And Magnitude
We have hitherto been examining the conditions of horizontal and vertical lines only, or of curves enclosed in rectangles. We must, in conclusion, investigate the perspective of inclined lines, begin...
-To Draw An Inclined Line, Given In Position And Magnitude. Continued
Now if the line A B in this diagram represented the length of the line A B in reality (as A B does in Figs. 10. and 11.), we should only have to proceed to modify Corollary III. of Problem II. to this...
-Problem XVI. To Find The Vanishing-Point Of A Given Inclined Line
If, in Fig. 43. or Fig. 44., the lines A y and a' y' be produced, the student will find that they meet. Let P, Fig. 45., be the point at which they meet. From P let fall the vertical p v on the sigh...
-Problem XVIII. To Find The Sight-Line Of An Inclined Plane In Which Two Lines Are Given In Position 1
Fig. 48. As in order to fix the position of a line two points in it must be given, so in order to fix the position of a plane, two lines in it must be given. 1 Read the Article on this problem in ...
-Problem XX. To Find The Vanishing Point Of Lines Perpendicular To The Surface Of A Given Inclined Plane
Fig. 50. As the inclined plane is given, one of its steepest lines must be given, or may be ascertained. Let A B, Fig. 50., be a portion of a steepest line in the given plane, and v the vanishing-...
-To Find The Vanishing Point Of Lines Perpendicular To The Surface Of A Given Inclined Plane. Continued
Whenever perspective, done by true rule, looks wrong, it is always because the station-point is too near. Determine, in the outset, at what distance the spectator is likely to examine the work, and ne...
-Appendix I. Practice And Observations On The Preceding Problems
An example will be necessary to make this problem clear to the general student. The nearest corner of a piece of pattern on the carpet is 4 1/2 feet beneath the eye, 2 feet to our right and 3 1/2 fee...
-Practice And Observations On The Preceding Problems. Continued
Therefore, you must learn to draw quickly to scale before you do anything else; for all the measurements of your object must be reduced to the scale fixed by S T before you can use them in your diagra...









TOP
previous page: Sketching And Rendering In Pencil | by Arthur L. Guptill
  
page up: Art and Photography Books
  
next page: Constructive Anatomy | by George B. Bridgman